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VARIETIES OF ENGLISHNational varieties Teacher: Isabel Morales Jareño. Student: Alexandra Simarro Miguel Javier Hernández San José. Belén Espinosa Millara.
INDEX • Introduction. • National varieties. • Interpretation. • Conclusion. • Bibliography.
Introduction • First of all, in the various parts of the former British Empire, the English language has developed differences that distinguish it from the language of England. • The English colonization of North America resulted in the creation of a distinct American variety of English. Some English pronunciations and words "froze" when they reached America. In some ways, American English is more like the English of Shakespeare than modern British English is.
Introduction • In the current context, English is in this moment one of the major language in the entire world. English is a language in constant growth, everybody use it to understand to the rest of people. • In numbers of speakers as well as in its uses for international communication and in other less quantifiable measures, English is one of the most important languages of the world. Spoke by more than 380 million people.
National varieties The varieties of English in the modern world are divided into four geographical groups:
National varieties Over the past 400 years, the form of the language used in the Americas and that used in the United Kingdom have diverged. Leading the dialects American English and British English. Some differences between the two are in: • Grammar • Pronunciation • Vocabulary • Spelling • Punctuation • Formatting dates and numbers
National varieties • 1.Nouns • In BrE, collective nouns can take either singular or plural verb forms, according to whether the emphasis is. • BrE: The Clash are a well-known band. • BrE: Spain are the champions. • In AmE, collective nouns are usually singular in construction. • AmE: Spain is the champion. • AmE: The Clash is a well-known band.
National varieties 2. Verbs • The past tense and past participle of some verbs can be: • In BrE, both irregular and regular forms are current (strong tendency towards the irregular forms). • In AmE, the irregular forms are never or rarely used. • Burn burnt or burned • Dream dreamt or dreamed • Learn learnt or learned
National varieties 3. Spelling • Words ending in -or (AmE) -our (BrE): color, colour, humor, humour, flavor, flavour etc. • Words ending in -ize (AmE) -ise (BrE): recognize, recognise, patronize, patronise etc.
National varieties 4.Words and phrases with different meanings: • Bill AmE "paper money”, “BrE and AmE "invoice“ • Biscuit AmE: BrE's "scone", BrE: AmE's "cookie“ Are used regularly in both AmE and BrE, but mean different things in each form.
National varieties • Some differences in usage and/or meaning can cause confusion or embarrassment. For example: • In AmEpantsrefers to the BrE trousers • while • in BrEpants refers to the AmE underwear.
Our interpretation - Stage play: The hen.- Theatre: Broadway- Characters: Paz Vegas Javier Bradem Penélope Cruise
Conclusion • English is spoken today on all five continents as a result of colonial expansion in the last four centuries. • English has come to play a central role as an international language. • The two main groups are Britain and America. For each there are standard forms of English. • Today, American English is particularly influential, due to the USA's dominance of cinema, television, Internet, popular music, trade and technology.
Bibliography • Baugh, A.C. & Cable, T. A (2003). A History of the English Language. Fifth edition. Pearson Education: London. • Palés Castro, M. (2003). Enciclopedia Espasa. Alicante: Espasa Calpe, S. A. • Dennis Freeborn, Peter French, David Langford (1993). Varieties of English: An Introduction to the Study of LanguagesMacmillan Press • David Crystal (2003). English as a global language. Cambridge.