diastratic / diatopicvarieties of English • Cockney • Estuary English
Cockney • Cockney represents the basilectal end of the London accent and can be considered the broadest form of London local accent.(Wells 1982b) It traditionally refers only to specific regions and speakers within the city. While many Londoners may speak what is referred to as "popular London" (Wells 1982b) they do not necessarily speak Cockney. The popular Londoner accent can be distinguished from Cockney in a number of ways, and can also be found outside of the capital, unlike the true Cockney accent. • The term Cockney refers to both the variety as well as to those people who speak it. • The etymology of Cockney has long been discussed and disputed. One explanation is that "Cockney" literally means cock's egg, a misshapen egg such as sometimes laid by young hens. • It was originally used when referring to a weak townsman, opposed to the tougher countryman and by the 17th century the term, through banter, came to mean a Londoner. • Today's natives of London, especially in its East End use the term with respect and pride (`Cockney Pride'.)
Geography of Cockney English: • London, the capital of England, is situated on the River Thames, approximately 50 miles north of the English Channel, in the south east section of the country. It is generally agreed, that to be a true Cockney, a person has to be born within hearing distance of the bells of St. Mary le Bow, Cheapside, in the City of London. • This traditional working-class accent of the region is also associated with other suburbs in the eastern section of the city such as the East End, Stepney, Hackney, Shoreditch Poplar and Bow.
The Cockney accent is generally considered one of the broadest of the British accents and is heavily stigmatized. • It is considered to epitomize the working class accents of Londoners and in its more diluted form, of other areas. • The area and its colourful characters and accents have often become the foundation for British "soap operas" and other television specials. • Currently, the BBC is showing one of the most popular soaps set in this region, "East Enders" and the characters’ accents and lives within this television program provide wonderful opportunities for observers of language and culture.
Cockney represents the basilectal end of the London accent and can be considered the broadest form of London local accent.(Wells 1982b) • It traditionally refers only to specific regions and speakers within the city. • While many Londoners may speak what is referred to as "popular London" (Wells 1982b) they do not necessarily speak Cockney. • The popular Londoner accent can be distinguished from Cockney in a number of ways, and can also be found outside of the capital, unlike the true Cockney accent.
The most striking phonological features of Cockney are: • r is pronounced only when followed immediately by a vowel-sound. So, no r is pronounced in flowers. (Some New England accents and Southern U.S. accents have this same feature.) • Dropped ‘h’ at beginning of words (Voiceless glottal fricative):h is usually omitted (home in the demonstration words); in self-conscious speech it's articulated very strongly. Examples: house = ‘ouse; hammer = ‘ammer • l is pronounced only when a vowel-sound follows (so no l is pronounced in hole, etc.). • TH fronting Another very well known characteristic of Cockney is th fronting which involves the replacement of the dental fricatives, and by labiodentals [f] and [v] respectively. Voiceless th is often, but not always, pronounced as f (breath, etc.). Voiced th is likewise often but not always pronounced as v (breathe, etc.). Examples: thin = fin; brother = bruvver; three = free; bath = barf • The long vowels are all diphthongs. Notice especially the difference between force etc. (spelled with r followed by a consonant, though the r is not pronounced) and poor etc. (spelled with r not followed by a consonant, though again the r is not pronounced). • MonophthongizationThis affects the lexical set ‘mouth’ vowel. • Glottal stop (the ‘t’ sound is not pronounced in intervocalic or final positions. there are some words where the omission of ‘t’ has become very accepted. Examples: Gatwick = Ga’wick; Scotland = Sco'land; statement = Sta'emen; network = Ne’work
Read and pronounce the following words, then listen… • fleece, police, grease • face, chase, lace • price, rice, nice • choose, lose, shoes • mouth, round, flowers • goat, note, home • force, north, porch • poor, more, door • hole, bowl, coal • little, model, fiddle • breath, three, thanks • breathe, mother, other
Grammatical features: • Use of me instead of my, for example, "At's me book you got 'ere". • Use of ain'tinstead of isn't, am not, are not, has not, and have not • Use of double negatives, for example "I didn't see nothing.“ • Use of the invariable tag question “innit”
Lexical features • Cockney is characterized by its own special vocabulary and usage (‘mate’, ‘cheers’, etc.), and traditionally by its own development of "rhyming slang.“
Rhyming slang • Cockney rhyming slang is an amusing, widely under-estimated part of the English language. It began 200 years ago among the London east-end docks builders. Cockney rhyming slang then developed as a secret language of the London underworld from the 1850's, when villains used the coded speech to confuse police and eavesdroppers. Since then the slang has continued to grow and reflect new trends and wider usage, notably leading to Australian rhyming slang expressions, and American too. Many original cockney rhyming slang words have now entered the language and many users are largely oblivious as to their beginnings.
Cockney rhyming slang uses substitute words, usually two, as a coded alternative for another word. The final word of the substitute phrase rhymes with the word it replaces (for example - the cockney rhyming slang for the word 'look' is 'butcher's hook'). When only the first word of the replacement phrase is used, as is usual, the meaning is difficult to guess (ie 'butchers' = 'look').
COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG 'Allo me old china - wot say we pop round the Jack. I'll stand you a pig and you can rabbit on about your teapots. We can 'ave some loop and tommy and be off before the dickory hits twelve. or, to translate Hello my old mate (china plate) - what do you say we pop around to the bar (Jack Tar). I'll buy you a beer (pig's ear) and you can talk (rabbit and pork) about your kids (teapot lids). We can have some soup (loop de loop) and supper (Tommy Tucker) and be gone before the clock (hickory dickory dock) strikes twelve.
"Got to my mickey, found me way up the apples, put on me whistle and the bloody dog went. It was me trouble telling me to fetch the teapots." which really means, "Got to my house (mickey mouse), found my way up the stairs (apples and pears), put on my suit (whistle and flute) when the phone (dog and bone) rang. It was my wife (trouble and strife) telling me to get the kids (teapot lids)."
Cockney rhyming slang is so prevalent in British English that many people unwittingly employ it in everyday speech. You will hear several established terms used in conversation throughout Britain: "Let's have a butchers at that magazine" (butcher's hook = look) "I haven't heard a dicky bird about it" (dickie bird = word) "Use your loaf and think next time" (loaf of bread = head) "Did you half-inch that car?" (half-inch = pinch, meaning steal) "You will have to speak up, he's a bit mutton" (mutt'n'jeff = deaf) "I'm going on my tod" (todsloan = alone, or own) "Are you telling porkies?" (porkies = pork pies = lies) "Are you going to rabbit all night?" (rabbit and pork = talk) "Scarper lads! The police are coming" (scarpa flow = go)
Rhyming slang, is still part of the true Cockney culture even if it is sometimes used for effect. Since the 1980s there has been a resurgence in the popularity of rhyming slang, with numerous new examples popping up in everyday in speech. Some make a bold attempt to infiltrate language use at a national level, usually employed by eager and cocky (sic) adolescents and especially young male adults in an attempt to strengthen their identity. The popularity of 'new laddism', 'girl power' and youth culture in general in the 1990's, encouraged by the media as a profitable commodity, has led to a wealth of rhyming slang taking hold throughout the United Kingdom.
Ayrton Senna = tenner (a monetary note) Claire Rayners = trainers (the footwear) Darren Gough = cough Damon Hill = pill David Gower = shower Gary Ablett = tablet (ecstasy pill) Gary Glitter = shitter (anus) Gianluca Vialli = charlie (cocaine) Jack Dee = pee Janet Street-Porter = quarter (a weight of drugs) Tony Blair (s) = flairs or hair Here's a small selection of general, but older, currently used expressions: ruby murray = curry barnet fair = hair currant bun = sun hampstead heath = teeth deep sea diver = fiver (a monetary note) mince pies = eyes china plate = mate pen and ink = stink septic tank = yank (a person from the U.S.) whistle and flute = suit
Song – Starz in their eyes • They'll be making sure you stay amused They'll fill you up with drugs and booze Maybe you'll make the evening news And when you're tripping over your dreams They'll keep you down by any means and by the end of the night you'll be stifling your screams Since you became a VIPerson It's like your problems have all worsened Your paranoia casts aspersions On the truths you know And they'll just put you in the spotlight And hope that you'll do alright Or maybe not Now why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? Why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? So why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? Now why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? Starz in their eyes? Remember they said you'd show them all Emphasise the rise but not the fall And now you're playing a shopping mall Your mum and dad they can't believe What you appear to have achieved While the rest of these users are just laughing in their sleeves Since you became a VIPerson It's like your problems have all worsened Your paranoia casts aspersions On the truths you know And now the tabloids use your face To document your fall from grace And then they'll tell you that that's just the way it goes That's just the way it goes Now why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? It's the same old story well they just didn't realise And it's a long way to come from the dog and duck karaoke machine And Saturday night's drunken dreams
Now why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? It's the same old story well they just didn't realise And it's a long way to come from your private bedroom dance routines And Saturday night's drunken dreams Now why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? Why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? So why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? Now why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? Starz in their eyes? Now why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? It's the same old story well they just didn't realise And it's a long way to come from the dog and duck karaoke machine And Saturday night's drunken dreams (When I grow up im going to be famous) Behind the steel barrier and sequence and glitter Five inch heels still knee deep in the litter Each of them a bitter bullshitter, Wrapped up in the cloak of fake glamour, getting lost in the camera Well footprints are fools gold, diamonds crusts on their one off plimsolls So little time for these one off arseholes Rigour mortis Ken and Barbie dolls, A pair of big shades and a push up bra, It's such a short gap between the gutter and stars, That you've come a long way from the place that you started So why'd you wanna go and get so down hearted Welcome to the kingdom of the blagger Uncutting you nose clean, coating you bladder A whole lot happier a whole lot sadder, Used to be satisfied but now you feel like Mick Jagger, Now why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? It's the same old story well they just didn't realise And it's a long way to come from the dog and duck karaoke machine And Saturday night's drunken dreams Now why do you wanna go and put starz in their eyes? It's the same old story well they just didn't realise And it's a long way to come from your private bedroom dance routines And Saturday night's drunken dreams
George Bernard Shaw’s Pygmalion George Bernard Shaw’s Pygmalion tells a story of a phonetics professor Henry Higgins, who makes a bet with Colonel Pickering that he can transform Eliza Doolittle, a thick-accented Cockney flower girl or a "squashed cabbage leaf" (as he himself describes her) into a fine duchess within three months. Professor Higgins is a man who can say where a person comes from by his or her accent. In the play (and film) the emphasis in changing one’s social class is more on learning to speak the right accent than on other significant factors. Higgins stresses that Eliza has to abandon her "Kerbstone English that will keep her in the gutter to the end of her days" and learn how to speak beautifully. In Shaw’s days (that is at the beginning of the 20th century) Britain was a very class-ridden society, and accent was a very good marker of one’s social class.
Pygmalion - Preface The English have no respect for their language, and will not teach their children to speak it. They spell it so abominably that no man can teach himself what it sounds like. It is impossible for an Englishman to open his mouth without making some other Englishman hate or despise him.
The story revolves around a bet made by the male protagonist who wants to change Eliza into an educated and refined person. So the Professor makesaninitial challenge towardPickeringwhichbecomes the cornerstoneof the film's plot. Hewagerswith the Colonelthatwithinsixmonths, he can teachElizaDoolittletospeakarticulately so thatshewillbetransformedinto a pure-speaking lady, so that no onewillsuspecther Cockney originswhensheispassed off as a duchess at anEmbassy Ball. Shewillbecome a proper, aristocratic lady just bybeingtaughtproper English: “Youseethis creature withhercurbstone English. The English thatwillkeepher in the guttertill the end ofherdays. Well, sir, in sixmonths, I could pass her off as a duchess at anEmbassy Ball. I couldevengether a job as a lady's maid or a shop assistant, whichrequiresbetter English... [ToEliza] Yes, yousquashedcabbageleaf. Youdisgraceto the noblearchitectureofthesecolumns! You incarnate insultto the English language! I could pass you off as, ah, the Queen ofSheba”. The cinematic version of P is My Fair Lady, starring Audrey Hepburn as Eliza Dolittle (the Cockney flower girl).
The Flower Girl is a Cockney speaker, her ‘variation’ is a dialect, it has geographic origins and a social connotation. G.B. Shaw – Pygmalion: The flower girl: I am a good girl, I am. The flower girl: Aint no call to meddle with me, he aint. .
In English, beyond regional (geographic) varieties we have very marked social varieties. The British need one or max. two sentences to decide if their interlocutors belong to the upper class, middle class or the many other classes in between. Eliza Doolittle is a working class Londoner (two connotations, social and geographic). The purpose was to highlight Eliza’s bad use of language and the fact that Prof. Higgins wanted her to speak a good language (upper class accent).
PYGMALION script available at: http://www.bartleby.com/138/index.html • "In six months—in three, if she has a good ear and a quick tongue—I'll take her anywhere and I'll pass her off as anything. I'll make a queen of that barbarous wretch!"
So the Professor makesaninitial challenge towardPickeringwhichbecomes the cornerstoneof the film's plot. Hewagerswith the Colonelthatwithinsixmonths, he can teachElizaDoolittletospeakarticulately so thatshewillbetransformedinto a pure-speaking lady, so that no onewillsuspecther Cockney originswhensheispassed off as a duchess at anEmbassy Ball. Shewillbecome a proper, aristocratic lady just bybeingtaughtproper English: «Youseethis creature with hercurbstone English. The English thatwillkeepher in the guttertill the end of herdays. Well, sir, in sixmonths, I could pass her off as a duchess at an Embassy Ball. I couldevengether a job as a lady's maid or a shop assistant, whichrequiresbetter English...[To Eliza] Yes, yousquashedcabbageleaf. Youdisgrace to the noblearchitecture of thesecolumns! You incarnate insult to the English language! I could pass you off as, ah, the Queen of Sheba».
The rain in Spain • “The rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain! Henry By George, she's got it! By George, she's got it!Now, once again where does it rain? Eliza On the plain! On the plain! Henry And where's that soggy plain? Eliza In Spain! In Spain! The three The rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain! “ • The rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain! Henry In Hartford, Hereford, and Hampshire...? Eliza Hurricanes hardly happen. How kind of you to let me come! Henry Now once again, where does it rain?Eliza On the plain! On the plain! Henry And where's that blasted plain? Eliza In Spain! In Spain!
Griffinepisode «Oneif by Clam, Twoif by Sea» (it. «My Fair Eliza») • http://watchfamilyguyonline.org/movie/51-Family_Guy_304_One_If_By_Clam_Two_If_By_Sea.html PLOT: When a hurricane strikes Quohog, everything is destroyed except The Drunken Clam, which is bought out by a Brit who turns it into an English pub. As it happens, pub owner Nigel Pinchley and his family move in next door to the Griffins, and Stewie tries to teach Nigel's Cockney-accented 3-year-old daughter how to speak proper English.
The entire Stewie story is based on the play "My Fair Lady," in which two affluent British gentlemen make a wager that one can pass off a common flower girl as a princess. The songs are parodies of those in the musical My Fair Lady, which is based on play. In both the play and this episode, the girl's name is Eliza.
Mins. 6:28 – 6: Stewie: Ahh! What the devil is that ghastly noise?Eliza: It's me! Eliza Pinchley. You want a flower, little baby? Stewie: Excuse me. What I think you mean to say is,"Would I like a flower?" Heavens! You don't so much speak the language as chew on it and spit it out!Eliza: Go on. What's wrong with the way I talk?Stewie: Everything. Look, here's a shiny sixpence if you keep your mouth shut and go away.
Mins. 8:51 – 9:36 Lois: Stewie, look. It's an invitation to little Eliza's birthday party! Stewie: You mean that horrid girl who talks like a scullery maid? I didn't realize she'd been born. I assumed she'd simply congealed in a gutter somewhere. Lois: Ooh, i'mgonnar.s.v.p. right now! Stewie: Oh, splendid. An entire afternoon of her "ers," and "ars," and "'alf a pound of ha'penny rice." God, why can't the English teach their children how to speak? Brian: Why don't you teach her? Unless you don't think you're up to it. Stewie: Oh, yes, this is the part where I'm supposed to say, "Oh, I am so up to it". Well, I am! I accept your challenge! At the celebration of her birthday, I shall pass that guttersnipe off as a lady! What are the stakes of this wager? Brian: Why don't you shut up for about a week? Stewie: Very well. And if I win? Brian: Well, I--I wasn't betting. Why don't you just shut up for about a week? Stewie: You're on!
Mins. 14:46 – 15:25 Stewie: No, no, no! If you're ever going to be a lady, you must learn to speak like one. Now try it again. "The life of the wife is ended by the knife."Eliza: "The loif of the w..."Stewie: No, no, no. Not "loif," "life!" "Life!"Eliza: That's wha' I said! "Loif!"Stewie: Now listen to me, you tin-eared piece of baggage, we've got five days left, and I'll not lose my wager. Now repeat after me. "Hello, Mother. Have you hidden my hatchet?"Eliza: 'Allo, Mother. 'Ave you 'idden my 'atchet?"Stewie: God, no! It's an "H" sound, you moron! H! Ha! Ha! Ha! Ha!Eliza: Ooh, your breath smells like kitty litter!Stewie: I was curious!
Mins. 16:14 – 16: Stewie: Once again, here is how it should sound. "How do you do?" And here is how you sound: [Can moos] Now try it again.Eliza: "How do you do?"Stewie: What did you say?Eliza: "The life of the wife is ended by the knife."Stewie: I think she's got it! I think she's got it!Eliza: ? "The life of the wife is ended by the knife" ?Stewie: By George, she's got it! By George, she's got it! Now, what ends her wretched life?Eliza: ? The knife! The knife! ?Stewie: And where's that bloody knife?Eliza: ? In the wife! In the wife! ?Both: ? The life of the wife is ended by the knife ?Stewie: Bravo, Eliza!Both: ? The life of the wife is ended by the knife ?
Mins. 18:47 – 19:24 Stewie: Psst! You-Dogbert! Down here! Get a front-row seat for this one.Eliza: How kind of you all to come.Stewie: Magnificent! I say, old sport, why don't you pull your face from your own loins and bury it into some humble pie?Eliza: Oh, bloody 'ell! I've gone and wet meself!Stewie: Don't give me that smug look! Fine! Well, you have extra-sensitive hearing. Hear this.[Inaudible “f*** you”]Brian: I'm telling.Stewie: No! I said "vacuum"!
Mins. 20:44 - Eliza: Dear Stewie, I want you to know I blame my father's death and my incarceration in this hell hole entirely on your awful mother. If it takes the rest of my life, I shall see that she suffers a slow and painful death. Eliza.Stewie: [Laughing] Excellent. Here, have a look.Giant Bug: Good, good.
Heineken spot • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v7gexcPQb_c&feature=related
HOME TASK: WATCH THE VIDEO AND TO THE GAP FILLING EXERCISE IN THE SCRIPT http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=84wHNUwDeOc The Story of English n° 7 The MuvverTongue
ESTUARY ENGLISH Emergence of a new replacement variety first dubbed ‘Estuary English’ by Rosewarne (1984) Estuary English is a name given to the form(s) of English widely spoken in and around London and, more generally, in the southeast of England — along the river Thames and its estuary.
[...] a variety of modified regional speech. It is a mixture of non-regional and local south-eastern English pronunciation and intonation. If one imagines a continuum with RP and London speech at either end, ‘Estuary English’ speakers are to be found grouped in the middle ground. (Rosewarne 1984)
From a geographical point of view, EE is said to have been first spoken "by the banks of the Thames and its estuary" (Rosewarne 1984, 29), then became "the most influential accent in the south-east of England“ (Rosewarne 1984, 29) and is now spreading "northwards to Norwich and westwards to Cornwall" (Rosewarne 1994, 4). From a sociological point of view, EE is reported to be used by speakers who constitute the social "middle ground" (Rosewarne 1984, 29). This definition includes speakers who want to conform to (linguistic) middle class norms either by moving up or down the social scale. The first group aims at EE in order to sound more 'posh', the second to sound less 'posh', both avoiding the elitist character of RP. This social compromise is also reflected in the linguistic makeup of EE. It comprises features of RP as well as non-standard London English thus borrowing the positive prestige from both accents without committing itself to either. This vagueness makes it extremely difficult to pin EE down linguistically.
Most (linguistic) people seem to agree on EE being a variant (accent) that is rapidly spreading in England. It can apparently be found in the area south of The Wash to the Avon. Linguists have described it as "a levelling of regional varieties towards London speech" and a "mixture of non-regional and local south-eastern English pronunciation and intonation". In letters-to-the-editor columns the debate has been heated; it's been called "slobspeak", ugly and vulgar, a "thing" that has to be corrected especially in school. Pronunciation traits include vocalisation of dark /l/ the use of glottal stops in certain positions, the change of st- (station, estuary, Christian) and -str- (strike, industrial, instruction) to the sound of sh- in she. This was observed on the BBC only a month ago. The quality of some vowels and diphthongs change which can lead to homophones like: way- why , say- sigh, pulls-pools-Paul's (- pause). Other features are: vocabulary (Americanisms and Cockney, the adding of basically), tags are very frequent (inni', don't I),stressing prepositions and auxiliary verbs (which can create misunderstandings: "Totters have been in operation FOR years").Several other features can be seen but I will refrain from giving more on this here. Suggestions for further reading will be put at the end of this SUM. • Who speaks EE? • It is very popular among the young probably because it is said to obscure social origins - very often it is adopted as a neutral accent. It increases "street cred" among the young from an RP background and young people with local accents adopt it because it sounds more "sophisticated". EE speakers are to be found "grouped in the middle ground", but it can be heard in the House of Commons as well as being used by some of the members of the Lords. It can be heard on the BBC and it is well established among the business men in the City.
Estuary English • web site (regularly maintained by J.C. Wells): http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/estuary/home.htmProvides numerous web links to "scholarly articles, papers, lectures, web sites and "light journalism."
As major phonological markers of EE, Rosewarne (1984) names: • /t/-glottalling as in for Gatwick Airport • /l/-vocalization as in for people • /j/-dropping as in for news • the diphthongal realisation of /i:/ and final /i/ as in for me and for city
According to J.C. Wells, phonetically EE differs from Cockney in usually not being characterized by, for example: • h-dropping ('and on 'eart) • TH fronting (I fink)
/t/-glottalling It's the 'sound' that is produced when you block off the air in the back of your throat with the glottis and let go again, producing a kind of almost audible pause, often replacing a final 't' or a post-vocalic 't' (righ' for right or wa'er for water).
Cockney phrase: "A li'le bi' of breab wiv a bi' of bu'er on i'." This process seems to be analogous to the loss of the t in such words as "Sco'land", "ga'eway", "Ga'wick", "sta'ement", "sea'-bel' ", "trea'ment", and "ne'work". Not all RP speakers would sound these ts. As would be expected, an "Estuary English" speaker uses fewer glottal stops for t or d than a "London" speaker, but more than an RP speaker.(Rosewarne 1984)
l-vocalisation Like Cockney (and other English accents) EE exhibits l-vocalisation. The rule is: an /l/ sound occurring at the end of a word or before a consonant is replaced with a vowel sound (realised as a back, closeish rounded vowel) RP:clear/l/ vs dark /ɫ/ (e.g.: leaf vs apple or little) Very often [w] is used to symbolise the sound. Examples: milk=[miwk], mill=[miw] (pool = pull = Paul)
l-vocalisation As shown by Paul Coggle talking about his own personal occurrence: “When my local computer shop promised to phone me back with information, the assistant assured me: `I'll give you a bell, Paul'. All the final ls had become ws: I'uw give you a be-uw, Pauw.” So an EE speaker might say: I down' feeuw atsauw weuw. (I don't feel at all well)
Yod Dropping Yod-dropping is the elision of the sound [j]. Where? In environments where RP has an alveolar stop plus yod: e.g. [ tu:n ] for `tune´, [ du:k ] for `duke´ or [nu: ] for `new´.
Yod Dropping In EE, the phoneme /j/ in words such as `assume´ and `issue´ is most often dropped. (cf. Coggle 1993) Additionally, the /ju: / is retained after plosives, nasals and / f, v, h /, e.g. `beauty´, `queue´, `argue´ and when /l/ is preceded by an accented vowel, e.g. value. Therefore, the phoneme / j / in words like `beauty´, `pure´,`few´ and `view´ is not likely to disappear in EE.