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European Advances in Supermarket Refrigeration Leak Reduction. Christoph Meurer Solvay Fluor GmbH, Germany. Agenda. European Supermarkets Business Specifics Refrigeration Specifics European Legislation and Standards Emission results from the field. Market Structure Germany.

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european advances in supermarket refrigeration leak reduction

European Advances in Supermarket Refrigeration Leak Reduction

Christoph Meurer

Solvay Fluor GmbH, Germany

agenda
Agenda
  • European Supermarkets
    • Business Specifics
    • Refrigeration Specifics
  • European Legislation and Standards
  • Emission results from the field
market structure germany
Market Structure Germany

European Supermarkets – Business Specifics

european supermarkets
European Supermarkets

Average Retail Space [m²]

European Supermarkets – Business Specifics

european supermarkets5
European Supermarkets
  • Shops are generally smaller
  • Deviations in business structure from country to country
  • Discounters are gaining popularity – especially in GER

European Supermarkets – Business Specifics

european supermarkets6
European Supermarkets

Conventional Multiplex

Low-Charge Multiplex

European Supermarkets – Refrigeration Specifics

european supermarkets7
European Supermarkets
  • Accessability of pipework key design criteria for Supermarket chains
  • Leak test methods are being optimised (pressure drop tests overrated / new detectors find leaks < 5g/anno)
  • Nr. of flares reduced
  • Total pipe length reduced

European Supermarkets – Refrigeration Specifics

european supermarkets8
European Supermarkets
  • Capacity of refrigeration packages relatively small  typical GER supermarket:75 kW medium / 35 kW low
  • Discounter markets (GER) usually operate with plug-in freezers for low temp and distributed systems for medium temp

European Supermarkets – Refrigeration Specifics

stek regulation nl
STEK Regulation (NL)
  • Design Criteria
    • Pipes shall be joined by welded or brazed joints
    • Flares joints shall not be used
    • Detailed requirements for relief / safety valves (usually blowing to low pressure side not ambient)
    • Systems > 300kg shall be located in machinery rooms (min. compressor racks)
    • ….

European Supermarkets – Legislation

stek regulation nl10
STEK Regulation (NL)
  • Service Criteria
    • Systems with charge > 3kg shall be inspected annually
    • Systems with charge > 1000kg shall be under constant supervision
    • Logbooks must be kept for all systems > 3kg charge
    • Refill / top up only permitted if leak is identified

European Supermarkets – Legislation

european legislation
European Legislation

EU F-GAS Regulation (Draft)

  • Service / Maintenance regulation framework similar to NL STEK
  • Mandatory service intervalls:
    • charge > 3kg every 6 months
    • charge > 300kg every 3 months
  • Legal Base for that part is „Protection of the environment“  member states may install additional requirements

European Supermarkets – Legislation

european standardisation
European Standardisation

EN 378-2000

  • No flared joints for pipes between 9mm and 19mm
  • Flared joints shall not be used to connect TXVs
  • Operating party must keep logbooks of refrigerant consumption

European Supermarkets – Standardisation

european supermarkets13
European Supermarkets

Location and Severity of Leaks*

Survey and long term of analysis of

62 supermarket refrigeration systems

in two German states.

Charge size from <10 to >360 kg

  • 96% of the total refrigerant loss was through field assembled joints
  • 15% of the leaks were responsible for 85% of refrigerant loss
  • 21,6% of all detected leaks where flared joints – They are responsible for close to 50% of lost refrigerant

* FKT Study – Leak tightness of Refrigeration Systems (1999, ILK Drseden)

Emission Results from the field

german tightness study
German Tightness Study*
  • 0,16% of brazed joints had leaks
  • Systems with substantial leaks over long periods had leaks in unaccessible parts of the system

* FKT Study – Leak tightness of Refrigeration Systems (1999, ILK Drseden)

Emission Results from the field

german tightness study15
German Tightness Study*

Annual Leakages from Supermarket Systems [%]

* FKT Study – Leak tightness of Refrigeration Systems (1999, ILK Drseden)

Emission Results from the field

german industry targets
German Industry Targets*

Avg. annual Leaks from stationary Systems [%]

FKT Study – Improving Leak tightness of Refrigeration Systems (2003, ILK Drseden)

statistics from nl
Statistics from NL
  • Overall leakage rate < 4.5% (2000)
  • Leackage rate per sector
    • AC < 1%, Process < 1%, industrial < 5%
    • Fishing industry 80% … 200%
  • Tremendous reduction (50%) of refrigerant market in spite of economical grow
  • Elimination of odd-jobbers/fly-by-nighters
  • Increased fleet efficiency (service)
summary
Summary
  • Business Structure in Europe different from US
  • Means for leak reduction are often simple
  • Some areas (NL/GER) have demonstrated that very tight DX systems are possible
  • Target values of 2% leak p.a. are realistic
  • EU legislation will address the issue