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Chapter 16: Slavery Divides the Nation…. Section 1: Slavery in the Territories. The Missouri Compromise. Missouri Compromise: Agreement proposed in 1819. By Henry Clay to keep the number of slave and free states equal . The Missouri Compromise.

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Chapter 16 slavery divides the nation

Chapter 16: Slavery Divides the Nation…

Section 1: Slavery in the Territories

The missouri compromise
The Missouri Compromise

  • Missouri Compromise:

    • Agreement proposed in 1819.

    • By Henry Clay to keep the number of slave and free states equal.

The missouri compromise1
The Missouri Compromise

  • Debates about slavery in new territories.....Yes or No!!!

  • 1819:

    • 11 free states

    • 11 slave states

  • Missouri wanted to join the union as a slave state.

  • This would give the South the majority in the Senate!!!

The missouri compromise2
The Missouri Compromise

  • Maine wanted to become a state as well.

  • Henry Clay came up with a compromise.

  • Maine was admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state....This would keep everything balanced!!

The missouri compromise3
The Missouri Compromise

  • Congress drew an imaginary line through Missouri....36' 30'N(Latitude)...

  • Slavery was permitted in Louisiana Purchase territory south of the line.

  • And banned slavery north of the line.

  • Exception: Missouri itself (all slave state)

Slavery in the west
Slavery in the West…

  • Wilmot Proviso-

    • Law passed in 1846 that banned slavery in any territories won by the U.S. from Mexico.

  • Popular Sovereignty:

    • Mid-1800's

    • Idea that each territory could decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery.

Wilmot proviso
Wilmot Proviso

  • 1848:

    • Mexican War adds much land to the U.S. in the West!

  • David Wilmot:

    • Member of Congress from Penn.

    • Tried to have all new Mexican territory slave free

    • Ban on slavery!

  • Called this the Wilmot Proviso

Wilmot proviso1
Wilmot Proviso

  • Wilmot Proviso:

  • Passed by House of Reps.

  • Senate rejected the Wilmot Proviso.

  • Continued arguments about slavery!!

Opposing views
Opposing Views

  • Southerners: Wanted slavery

  • Northerners: Opposed slavery

  • In between the two extremes: Moderates

  • Felt that the Missouri Compromise line should extend to the Pacific Ocean.

  • Some felt that the new states should be able to decide for themselves.

The free soil party
The Free-Soil Party

  • Free-Soil party:

    • Bipartisan antislavery party founded by the U.S. in 1848 to keep slavery out of the western territories.

Free soil party
Free Soil Party

  • Antislavery members that came from two parties:

  • 1. The Northern Democrats.

  • 2. Whigs.

  • Goal of party:

    • Keep slavery out of western territories

Election of 1848
Election of 1848

  • Free-Soil Party:

    • Martin Van Buren(Ban on Slaves)

  • Democrats:

    • Lewis Cass(popular sovereignty)

  • Whigs:

    • Zachary Taylor(wins election)(slave owner)

  • Slavery was main issue!!!

The compromise of 1850

The Compromise of 1850

Section 2 Chapter 16

California s impact
California’s Impact

  • 1849:

    • 15 free states

    • 15 slave states

  • California wanted to enter as a free state.

  • Along with possibly :

    • Oregon.

    • Utah.

    • And New Mexico.

  • South would be out-voted by free states in the Senate!

  • South wanted to secede from the U.S.

Clay v calhoun
Clay v. Calhoun

  • Clay:

    • AKA "The Great Compromiser" feared the nation would break apart.

  • John C. Calhoun(S.C.):

    • Refused to compromise

    • 1.Wanted slavery in western territories.

    • 2. Demanded that fugitive slaves be returned to their owners.

  • If the North did not agree, the South would part in peace.

The compromise of 18501
The Compromise of 1850

  • Five Parts:

  • 1. California would enter Union as a free state.

  • 2. Divided the rest of the Mexican Cession into

    • New Mexico and Utah. (popular sovereignty)

  • 3. Ended the slave trade in Washington D.C.

    • (Congress would have no power over slave trade between slave states)

  • 4. Strict fugitive slave law.

  • 5. Settled border disputes between Texas and New Mexico.

Fugitive slave act
Fugitive Slave Act

  • Required all citizens to help catch runaway slaves.

  • If anyone let a fugitive escape....$1,000 fine and jail time.

  • Special courts were created to handle cases---

  • NO suspects were allowed a jury trial!!

  • Judges received $10 for sending the accused runaway to the South....$5 to set them free.

Uncle tom s cabin
Uncle Tom’s Cabin

  • Antislavery Bestseller:

  • Harriet Beecher Stowe

  • Tells of an enslaved African American noted for his kindness.

  • His owner whips him to death for not telling the whereabouts of two runaway slaves.

  • Uncle Tom's Cabin outsold every book except the Bible in the years leading up to the Civil War.

  • Translated into over 20 different languages.

The crisis deepens

The Crisis Deepens…

Section 3 Chapter 16

Kansas nebraska act
Kansas-Nebraska Act

  • Proposed by Senator Stephen Douglas

  • 1854:

    • law that established the territories of Kansas and Nebraska.

    • Giving the settlers the right of popular sovereignty to decide on the issue of slavery.

  • This territory stretched from Texas to Canada.

  • President Franklin Pierce and Stephen Douglas helped to push it through Congress

Kansas nebraska act1
Kansas-Nebraska Act

  • Southerners were happy with the Act.

  • Northerners were outraged!

  • The Missouri Compromise already banned slavery in these territories.

  • It seemed the Kansas-Nebraska Act would repeal the Missouri Compromise!

  • Northerners openly challenged the Fugitive Slave Act.

The crisis turns violent
The Crisis Turns Violent

  • Most new settlers came because they wanted land cheap!

  • Abolitionists moved into area as well as proslavery settlers.

  • Border Ruffians-

    • proslavery bands from Missouri who often battled antislavery forces in Kansas.

  • 1855:

    • Kansas held elections to choose law-makers.

    • Border Ruffians crossed the border into Kansas and voted illegally.

Two governments
Two Governments

  • Proslavery legislature was elected and passed laws that angered Northerners.

  • 1. People could be put to death for helping slaves escape.

  • 2. Speaking out about slavery became a crime punishable by two years of hard labor.

  • The antislavery settlers refused to follow laws and created their own legislature and governor!

  • Kansas now had TWO separate governments!!

Bleeding kansas
Bleeding Kansas

  • Nickname of Kansas because of the guerrilla warfare that took place throughout 1856.

  • Guerrilla warfare:

    • The use of hit-and-run tactics

  • Killings at Pottawatomie Creek

    • Led by antislavery activist John Brown sparked many deaths in Kansas.

Dred scott case
Dred Scott Case

  • Dred Scott was enslaved in Missouri for many years.

  • He moved with his owner to Illinois and then to Wisconsin where slavery was banned.

  • They eventually moved back to Missouri where Scott's owner died.

  • Scott filed a lawsuit and argued that because he had lived in free territory, he had become a free man!

The supreme court ruling
The Supreme Court Ruling..

  • Angered Northerners!

  • 1. Supreme Court stated that Scott could not file a suit because slaves were not citizens.

  • 2. Slaves were considered property.

  • 3. The Court did not have the power to outlaw slavery in any territory---

  • The Missouri Compromise, according to the Court, was unconstitutional!

  • This meant that slavery was legal in all territories!!!!

The republican party emerges

The Republican Party Emerges…

Section 4 Chapter 16

The republican party
The Republican Party…

  • Developed in 1854.

  • Free-Soilers.

  • Northern Democrats.

  • Antislavery Whigs.

  • ALL wanted to stop slavery!!!

Election of 1856
Election of 1856

  • John C. Fremont:

    • Republican

    • Frontiersman who helped with California's independence

    • Little political experience

    • Opposed slavery.

Election of 18561
Election of 1856

  • James Buchanan:

    • Democrat:

    • “Northern man with southern principles"

    • Hoped to attract people from the North and South.

Election of 18562
Election of 1856

  • Millard Fillmore:

    • "Know-Nothing-Party“

    • Wanted to preserve the Union.


  • Buchanan wins the election!!!

  • The Republicans did win 1/3 of popular vote.

  • This showed that they had a lot of influence!

  • Southerners began to worry that their influence was fading!!

Abe lincoln
Abe Lincoln

  • Born in Kentucky.

  • Grew up in Illinois.

  • Frontiersman.

  • Self taught education. (only was in school for 1 yr.)

  • Studied to be a lawyer

  • "Just Folks“: simple man.

  • Wrestling

  • Honest-plain spoken.

  • Opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act

  • Decided to run for Senate against Stephen Douglas!

Lincoln douglas debates
Lincoln- Douglas Debates

  • Seven debates between Lincoln and Douglas.

  • Slavery was main issue.

  • Douglas was a supporter of popular sovereignty.

  • Lincoln opposed slavery in new territories.

  • Douglas won the debates by a slim margin...

  • Lincoln did become very popular from the debates (esp. in the North).

John brown s raid
John Brown’s Raid

  • 1859:

  • Raids Harpers Ferry, Virginia

  • Raided a federal arsenal (gun warehouse)

  • Captured by Robert E. Lee

  • 10 raiders are killed by Lee's troops and Brown

  • is captured!

  • In court:

  • Brown was found guilty of murder and treason (actions against one's country)

  • Sentenced to Death!

  • Martyr: (willing to give up your life for beliefs).

A nation divides

A Nation Divides

Section 5 Chapter 16

Election of 1860
Election of 1860…

  • Abraham Lincoln:

    • Republican candidate

  • Stephen Douglas:

    • Northern Democrats

  • John Breckinridge:

    • Southern Democrats

  • John Bell:

    • The Constitutional Union Party

    • (Moderate --still looking for compromise between the North and South)

Election of 1860 results
Election of 1860 Results…

  • Abraham Lincoln wins the election!!!

  • Last Effort to Save Union:

  • Senator John Crittenden

    • Kentucky.

    • Tries to introduce bill that would extend the Missouri Compromise line all the way to the Pacific.

  • The South decides to secede from the Union.

The confederate states of america
The Confederate States of America…

  • Seven states:

    • South Carolina.

    • Alabama.

    • Florida.

    • Georgia.

    • Louisiana.

    • Mississippi.

    • Texas.

  • New President of Confederacy:

    • Jefferson Davis of Mississippi.

  • The confederate troops began to seize federal property in the South.(forts, post offices, government buildings)

The civil war begins
The Civil War Begins…

  • The Confederates attacked Fort Sumter on April 11, 1861.

  • The Union commander, Major Robert Anderson, was forced to surrender on April 13, 1861.

  • This sparked the beginning of the Civil War!!!

Essay topics
Essay Topics…

  • 1. Explain how the election of 1860 was the final blow that started the Civil War. (Provide examples...)

  • Provide three examples to support the following statement...(details needed)

  • A series of compromises delayed the Civil War for 40 years.

  • 2. Describe the Dred Scott Supreme Court case.

  • --Three parts of decision

  • --Two major results

  • 3. Explain the four major parts of the Compromise of 1850.

Essay topics1
Essay Topics…

  • 4. List two ways in which the Lincoln-Douglas debates helped Abe Lincoln.

  • 5. Explain Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin.

  • --How did North react.

  • --How did South react.

  • --Impact of the novel