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SESSION 15 Management and Finance in the ITI environment. “If we fail to anticipate the unforeseen, or expect the unexpected in a universe of infinite possibilities, then we may fall victim to anyone or anything that cannot be programmed, categorized, or easily referenced." Mulder, X-Files.

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session 15 management and finance in the iti environment

SESSION 15Management and Finance in the ITI environment

“If we fail to anticipate the unforeseen, or expect the unexpected in a universe of infinite possibilities, then we may fall victim to anyone or anything that cannot be programmed, categorized, or easily referenced." Mulder, X-Files

session focus
Session Focus
  • To identify some of the key dimensions of management and finance in electronic organizations and environments.
  • To examine some key aspects of leadership and conflict resolution
review of learning
Review of Learning
  • An informatics perspective of information technology places people at the center of IT action
  • The Internet and globalization are reshaping the nature of work in organizations – the “Borderless Company”
  • The role of an IT professional in 21st C is built from a social informatics perspective
what is
What is …?
  • MANAGEMENT: The act or art of managing; the manner of treating, directing, carrying on, or using, for a purpose; conduct; administration; guidance; control
  • conducting or supervising a business: planning, organizing and staffing, controlling and problem solving to meet organizational objectives; ; coping with organizational complexity
  • LEADERSHIP: personal capacity to lead, guide, direct: coping with change: setting direction, aligning people, motivating and inspiring
dimensions of management
Leadership skills

Understanding organizational culture and its complexity – human, structural, environmental

Understanding roles and functions of managers

Managerial planning for organizational effectiveness

Policy development

Human resources management

Decision making and delegation of authority

Interpersonal processes

Managing change

Managing technology

Financial management and budgeting

Evaluation and measurement

Dimensions of Management
elective studies in iti major if you want a management focus
ELECTIVE STUDIES IN ITI MAJORif you want a management focus
  • Management of Technological Organizations [04:547:210]
  • Information Policies, Politics, and Power [04:547:400]
  • Leadership in Electronic Environments [04:547:310]
  • Designing and Managing Digital Environments [04:547:430]
  • Economics of Information Technologies [04:547:420]
  • Electronic Commerce [04:547:410]
management some views
Management: some views
  • Corporate power elites distinguished primarily by their distance from actual productive work and their chronic failure to manage (suit). Spoken derisively, as in "*Management* decided that ...".

2. Mythically, a vast bureaucracy responsible for all the world's minor irritations. Hackers' satirical public notices are often signed "The Mgt"; this derives from the "Illuminatus!" novels.

will i make a good manager
Will I make a good manager?

Service Orientation

  • Encourage people to make suggestions.
  • Set objectives based on customer/user requirements.
  • Provide an environment conducive to teamwork.
  • Gives openly the information needed to do the job.
  • Act as a positive role model for improving quality of services
  • Encourage everyone to work as a team.
  • Listen before making decisions affecting any area.
  • Behaves in ways which demonstrate respect for others.
will i make a good manager1
Will I make a good Manager?

Staff Development

  • Provide honest feedback on workplace performance.
  • Facilitate professional development.
  • Encourage people to monitor own efforts.
  • Clearly define priorities.
  • Ensure regularly scheduled reviews of progress toward goals.
  • Openly recognize work well done.
will i make good manager
Will I Make Good Manager?

Resource Utilization

  • Identify opportunities for cooperation and partnership to enhance resources.
  • Make an effort to locate and remove barriers that reduce efficiency.
  • Financially manage in an ethical, open way and cost-effective manner
will i make good manager1
Will I Make Good Manager?


  • Advocate, model, and facilitate change.
  • Assist in resolving work-related problems.
  • Inform others regularly about the state of the business.
  • Summarize progress during meetings to seek understanding and agreement.
  • Encourage an environment of openness and trust.
  • Display an understanding of objectives and strategic directions
managing change
  • Dynamically changing IT environment poses stress on organizational structure, infrastructure, communications, and P2P relationships
  • Conflict, and managing and resolving conflict are by-products of rapidly changing environments
  • Transformational leadership is a key quality

A section manager complains to his senior manager that two of his staff are not pulling their weight: they come to work late, complain about work loads, time deadlines, and have set up an email trail to voice complaint; they won’t discuss it or negotiate it; and do small things to create an unpleasant working atmosphere for everyone, including some harassment of female staff. These two staff are also responsible for one of the largest income-generating sections of the firm, and use this as a weapon against any reference to their work-place actions.


A process we put ourselves through to achieve a new condition and self definition

conflict and its resolution

Conflict results from:

  • Varied perspectives on the situation
  • Different belief systems and values
  • Life experiences and conditioning
  • Differing objectives and interests
  • Strong negative emotions
  • Poor communication and miscommunication
  • Repetitive negative or irritable behaviors
5 sources of conflict in organizations
5 sources of conflict in organizations
  • Relationship Conflicts: often lead to an unnecessary escalating spiral of destructive conflict; need to establish mechanism for safe, open and balanced expressions of perceptions and emotions
  • Data Conflicts:Lack of information necessary to make wise decisions; problem of misinformation; disagreement on which data are relevant; differing interpretations of information
Interest conflicts: competition over perceived incompatible needs – where solution for one results in needs and interests of others being sacrificed. Mechanisms for maximizing integration of respective parties’ interests and desired experiential outcomes.
  • Structural conflicts: forces external to people in dispute: limited physical resources, geographic constraints, time, organizational changes.
  • Value conflicts: perceived or actual incompatible belief systems. Disputes arise when people attempt to force one set of values on others, or lay claim to exclusive value systems
resolving conflict in organizations
Resolving conflict in organizations
  • A convergence of means, not a convergence of interests and perspectives.
  • An arrangement for the future.
  • Does not necessarily resolve tension between parties, but sufficiently aligns matters to enable all participants to make progress to desired ends.
approaches to conflict resolution 5 common ways
Approaches to Conflict Resolution:5 common ways
  • Do Battle: competitive approach based on individualism and survival of the fittest: “see you in court”, “you will hear from my attorney”; creates “right” and “wrong”. Resolution is often imposed; settlement often under duress of impending trial
  • Denial or withdrawal:refuse to acknowledge conflict; often results in an unmanageable situation
  • Suppression or smoothing over: play down differences; does not recognize positive aspects of handling conflicts openly; may be useful to preserve relationships.
4. Power or dominance: use authority or position; use power such as majority voting; often results in winners and losers, where losers not supportive; often mars future meetings, decisions, plans.
  • Compromise or negotiation: “you give a little, I’ll give a little, and we’ll meet each other half way”: bargaining; often causes sides to assume inflated positions since they are aware they are going to give a little to buffer the loss; compromise may often be too weak to be effective.
  • Integration or collaboration: individual interests, positive intentions and desired outcomes thoroughly explored – win-win situation; participants modify and develop views as the work progresses.
window wishers
“Window Wishers”
  • "Window Wishers"are always wishing for the things they want to have or do, without necessarily doing anything to achieve it.
  • Window Wishers:
  • Do not set goals that are realistic and obtainable
  • Do not properly assess the needs for achieving their goal
  • Are unwilling to discipline themselves, work hard and sacrifice for delayed gratification
  • Do not believe in themselves
  • Lack motivation and lack a plan of action
  • Lack a clear vision
negotiation skills
Start with a win-win approach

State your case without arousing the defenses of the other person(s)

Change adversarial attack to building co-operation

Redirect ideas to the positive: “It’s impossible” to “What would take to make it possible”

Manage emotions – how can feelings be communicated effectively to achieve desired goals?

Think through your response – does it inform or inflame?

Define and map the issue in neutral terms – not yes / no scenarios

Generate a range of options for discussion – creative responses

Attack the problem and be soft on the person

Focus on needs, not positions

Emphasize common ground

Make clear agreements

Negotiation Skills


"Leadership is action, not position." Donald McGannon

it professionals bringing about change
IT Professionals bringing about change…
  • Understanding the nature of change
  • Clear shared vision
  • Capacity for change
  • Actionable first steps
  • Modelling the way
  • Reinforce and solidify the change
  • Evaluate and improve
goal setting for the 21st century leader 10 power tools
Goal Setting for the 21st Century Leader: 10 power tools

#1. Define Yourself and Assess Your Qualities

#2. Determine Your Purpose & Personal Values

#3. Develop A Vision

#4. Set Measurable Objectives and Realistic goals

#5. Develop A Personal Strategic Action Plan

#6. Maintain Motivation

#7. Become Disciplined #8. Be Flexible

#9. Make Time For Leisure #10. Take Action

readings for the final exam
Williams, D. (2003). The Videogame lightning Rod. Information Communication and Society, (6) 4, p. 523.

Skibell, R. (2003). The myth of the computer hacker. Information, Communication and Society, 5 (3), p. 336.

Freeman, E. (2003). Exporting encryption software and the first amendment: Bernstein vs. U.S. Department of State. Information Systems Security, 12 (4), p. 12.

McMillan, R. (2004 March 17). Lessig: Be wary of IP extremists. InfoWorld.

SCILS Professor Michael Lesk’s How Much Information Is There In the World?

Unpublished yet access it on the web at:

Trauth, E.M. (2002). Odd girl out: An individual differences perspectives on women in the ITI profession. Information technology & People, 15 (2), p. 98-117.

Readings for the Final Exam