Water Conflicts and the Future. What are the possible conflicts and solutions to increasing demands for water? This section looks at 4 themes: Trends in water demand globally and locally Water players Responses to need to increasing water supply and the issues these strategies raise
What are the possible conflicts and solutions to increasing demands for water?
This section looks at 4 themes:
Trends in water demand globally and locally
Responses to need to increasing water supply and the issues these strategies raise
The role of technology in water supply
Insert Figure 2.11 page 47
Iraq + Syria concerns that Turkey’s GAP project will divert their water
Colorado: disputes between the 7 US states and Mexico it flows through. The river is so overused, that it no longer reaches the sea!.
90% abstracted before reaches Mexico
The Aral Sea, an inland drainage basin, once the world’s 4th largest inland lake has shrunk sine the 1950s after the 2 rivers feeding it: the Amu Dayra and Syr Darya were diverted for irrigation.
By 2007 the sea was 10% of original volume and split into 2 lakes. The ex soviet states are in conflict: Uzbekistan , Turkmenistan and Kazakstan.
Note: although there have been rising tensions globally, many areas demonstrate effective management to diffuse the situation and create more equitable and sustainable demand-supply balance, such as the Mekong River Committee,& the Nile River Initiative
Nile hotly disputed between Ethiopia and Sudan ,who control its headwaters, and Egypt .
From: 2002 International Food Policy and Research Institute future models
explain what might lead to this situation.
Photograph of Aral Sea with grounded tanker
UN MDG TARGET set in 2000: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.
The world is ahead of schedule in meeting the 2015 drinking water target.
Yet a number of countries face an ‘uphill battle’: 884 million people still rely on unimproved water sources for their drinking, cooking, bathing and other domestic activities.
Of these, almost 85 % (746 million people) live in rural areas.
1990 to 2006, 1.1 billion people in the developing world received access to toilets, latrines and other forms of improved sanitation.
But this leaves 1.4 billion people still needing such facilities if the 2015 target is to be met.
Previous Themes for World Water Days
Strategies rely on technology?
What is Sustainability? Millennium Ecosystem Assessment definition:
A characteristic or state whereby the needs of the present and local population can be met without compromising the ability of future generations or populations in other locations to meet their needs.
Driven by short term economic + political concerns
Often do not include science and effective technology
Need more research, information and monitoring especially on aquifers in developing countries
More community involvement?
Traditional ‘hard’ engineering
What else does Technology do to solve the water crisis?
Example – Ogallala Aquifer, USA
Water efficient—Most rain water falling on the site is collected and reused. Appliances are chosen to be water-efficient and use recycled water when possible.
2 water systems. Clean and grey water
The problem: The River WAKAL area of Rajasthan in NW India is one of the driest and poorest areas in India. Subsistence agriculture dominates.
96% of rainfall is from the 3-4 month monsoon (late June through September.) and the traditional methods of using groundwater and conserving surface water are falling short of demands
Changes: Traditional low tech methods of water conservation.: stone dams, Persian water wheels and tube wells- but cannot cope with increased demand and increased droughts
Watch the 2 news clips on the restoration http://news.bbc.co.uk/player/nol/newsid_6530000/newsid_6538100/6538199.stm?bw=bb&mp=wm&news=1&nol_storyid=6538199&bbcws=1
Use this information and that in the text book to answer :
2. What have been in the impacts of these plans?
Specific Technologies seen as appropriate /intermediate with less negative externalities
So-called dry sanitation technologies, such as that employed in the Gebers Housing Project in Sweden, can save much of this freshwater for other applications. These decentralized systems first separate urine from faeces and then safely recycle each for use as crop fertilizers