Separable and inseparable prefix verbs ImPräteritum
Rules • Just like in the present tense you have separable and inseparable prefix verbs. • If inseparable, the prefix will stay attached to the verb. • If separable, the prefix will be sent to the end of either the sentence or the clause. • When the verb changes in präteritum, it will stay the same for the separable and inseparable prefix verb. • So if the ‘e’ changed to an ‘a’ normally, it will still do that. • Inseparable will still be attached to the verb, separable will still be at the end of the sentence or clause. • Using “nicht”, you put it before the separable prefix verb. • When using a modal and a prefix verb, conjugate the modal verb into the präteritum, and put the prefix verb in the infinitive-unconjugated-form.
Prepositions of location, in set phrases When and how to use Different from in English!
Prepositions of location • Recap: use dative case with two-way prepositions to indicate location, use accusative case to show movement toward a destination. • Use auf with dative to indicate something is located on a horizonal surface or a location, or as a description of a location in public buildings or open spaces. • Use an with dative to indicate a location on or at a border, wall, or body of water. • Use in w/dative to indicate a location on or in an enclosed space. • If indicating a location in a country that is feminine or plural, use in in the dative case of the definite article, and add the country’s name. • In der Schweiz. In den USA. • Use bei in the dative case with a noun referring to a person or business to indicate a location that the person’s home or at the place of business. • It can also mean near a location or in the presence of a condition • for example weather is a condition.
Prepositions in set phrases • Depending on the combination they have specific meanings that cannot change. • They take one case no matter if it is associated with verbs indicating location or movement. • See page 125 for specific dative and accusative cases phrases.
Infinitive expressions and clauses How to have more than one verb in a sentence, but only conjugate some of the verbs
Using the word ‘zu’ • When you use a non-modal verb with an infinitive clause, add the preposition “zu” before the infinitive. • Example: Ich habemichentschiedenmeineHausaufgabenzumachen. • Note that the zu goes before the infinitive clause at the end of the sentence. • DO NOT USE with a modal verb. Follow normal procedures of modal verb sentences. • If you have a double verb expression (two verbs), then add the “zu” between to two verbs. • If the infinitive clause is a separable prefix verb, the same rule applies. • Put it in between the two parts, but the separable prefix verb will still be in the infinitive.
Words to keep an eye out for • These can indicate that a “zu” expression is coming. • Anfangen, beginnen, helfen, vergessen, versuchen. • Expressions: • Lust haben (to be in the mood), angst haben, spaßmachen, • Adjectives: • Einfach, wichtig, schön.
Infinitive clause expressions • Some to watch for: • Es ist/war • Um….zu, ohne…zu, anstatt…zu. • For these three the infinitive clause can actually START the sentence, which means your conjugated verb will take positions number 2 on the sentence. • Subject will come after the verb, so positions 3.
Time expressions When to use “Zeit” versus “Mal”
“Zeit” and “Mal” • Use “Zeit” when speaking about a span of time. • Use “Mal” when referring to specific occurrences and things that repeat. • Mal can also be used as a compound. • Das erste Mal, diesmal, einmal, manchmal, niemals, zumestern/letzen Mal
Time spans, point in time • Use the accusative case to discuss a specific span of time or point in time. • Use “dauern” in the accusative case for talking about how long something lasted. • Die KlassedauerteeineStunde. • Letzen Montag hattetihrnochFerien. • Use the present tense with “seit” plus dative time expressions or “schon” plus accusative time expressions to indicate how long something has been going on. • Two-way prepositions “an, in, vor” can all be used to answer the question “wann” • Use dative case with the time expressions. • To narrate a series of events use the time expressions “zuerst, dann, danach, zuletzt, schließlich”