MODERN AFRICA. THEMES/PROBLEMS GEOGRAPHY INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS CASE STUDY: SOUTH AFRICA (APARTHEID) DEVELOPMENT, AIDS CRISIS, ECONOMICS. PROBLEMS/THEMES. AIDS CRISIS FAMINE/HUNGER CIVIL WAR ETHNIC UNREST/GENOCIDE POVERTY/INEQUALITY OF WEATLTH LACK OF INVESTMENT CAPITAL.
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CASE STUDY: SOUTH AFRICA (APARTHEID)
DEVELOPMENT, AIDS CRISIS, ECONOMICS
DESERT ACTS AS A BARRIER TO
TRADE AND TRAVEL
LACK OF FERTILE FARM LAND
NILE RIVER FERTILE VALLEY, SILT
OTHER RIVERS WATER FALLS, RAPIDS, CATARACTS
MAKE TRANSPORTATION DIFFICULT BUT
SOMETIMES GOOD FOR HYDROELECTRIC POWER
Influenced migration forcing people to move
in a north-south direction.
100 mile wide canyon
COASTLINE SMOOTH, BAD FOR TRADE
LAKES IMPORTANT SOURCE OF
Lake Victoria FISH, MAJOR SOURCE OF
Lake Tanganyika PROTEIN IN AFRICA
Lake Malawi (Nyasa)
KENYA: JOMO KENYATA
The British held the territory called the Gold Coast.
Kwame Nkrumah led the independence movement
Nkrumah believed in non-violence.
In 1957 The Gold Coast got its independence and
was then called Ghana.
Kwame Nkrumah became Ghana’s first President
Supplied with military weapons by superpower they supported
Conflicts in Ethiopia and Somalia
1963 OAU Organization of African Unity
2001 African Union – modeled after the UNCold War & Regional Organizations
where black people would live
NELSON MANDELA ----AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS
STEVE BIKO---------------BLACK CONSCIOUSNESS MOVEMENT
ARCHBISHOP DESMOND TUTU-----PEACEFUL RESISTANCE TO THE AFRIKAANER GOVERNMENT
Nelson Mandela was arrested in the 1960’s for conspiracy against the government. He remained in jail for over 20 years. He was released by President F.W. deKlerk in 1989. By 1994 Mandela became the first black president of South Africa. People waited in line for days to vote in the first free elections!
Steve Biko was arrested by the South African police. He was murdered while in custody in 1977. Thousands showed up for his funeral and he became a symbol of resistance to the white oppression. His movement lived on after his death. The white police officers who beat him did not answer for their crimes until the 1990’s.
A man of the cloth who spoke out against apartheid!Tutu appealed to the world’s nations to stop trading with South Africa until it cleaned up its human rights record! Many people respected this religious figure!
Many world nations put pressure (economic sanctions on South Africa which crippled the economy.
1989 F.W. deKlerk became President.
1990 deKlerk lifted the ban on the ANC and released Mandela from prison.
deKlerk began to repeal the apartheid laws, dismantling the system of racial separation.
April 1994 was set as the first free elections and for a new constitution.
In 1994 Nelson Mandela won the presidential election hands down!
ETHNIC TENSION IN RWANDA BETWEEN HUTUS AND TUTSIS LED TO GENOCIDE 1990’S
CIVIL WAR, DROUGHT, FAMINE IN SOMALIA IN 1992 LED TO U.S. INTERVENTION (Black Hawk Down)
South Africa has one of the highest death rates due to AIDS
The main problem is education about how AIDS spreads as well as the fact that there is a lack of money in the African nations to purchase the AIDS drugs available in other countries!