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Ionic and Metallic Bonding. And how!. 1/5/12. Objective: To review the fundamentals of ions and learn about ionic bonding Do now: Do the hokey pokey. Turn yourself around. Then write down what a valence electron is and how many aluminum and gold have. (4 minutes!) Le homework:

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1 5 12
1/5/12
  • Objective: To review the fundamentals of ions and learn about ionic bonding
  • Do now: Do the hokey pokey. Turn yourself around.
    • Then write down what a valence electron is and how many aluminum and gold have. (4 minutes!)
  • Le homework:
    • Read Ch. 7.1, answer pg 193 # 3-11
valence electrons
Valence electrons
  • The electrons in an atoms highest energy level are called valence electrons
    • We’ll revisit this later.
  • S and P block: Valence electrons = group #
  • D and F block: all elements have 2 valence e-s
octet rule
Octet rule
  • Why do atoms give up and receive electrons?
  • BIG IDEA:
    • Octet rule: atoms give up and receive electrons in order to achieve a full valence shell
    • A full valence shell has 8 e-s
cations
Cations
  • Metals tend to lose electrons when they form ions
    •  less electrons than protons
    •  overall positive charge
    • Positive ions are called cations
ani ons
Anions
  • Non-metals tend to gain electrons when they form ions
    •  more electrons than protons
    •  overall negative charge
    • Negative ions are called anions
1 6 12
1/6/12
  • Objectif: To understand the electron configuration of ions
  • Do now: How many electrons do each of the following ions have?
    • Na+, F-, Al3+, O-2, Mg2+
  • Do Later: Read 7.2, pg 196 #12 & 13, Pg 199 # 14-22
hw 1 5 12
Hw 1/5/12

3) Valence electrons of rep. element = group #

4) Metals gain electrons, non-metals lose e-s

5) Atoms lose electrons to form cations

6) Atoms gain electrons to form anions

7) a. 1 b. 4 c. 2 d. 6

8)

9) a. lose 2 b. gain 1 c. lose 3 d. gain 2

10) Potassium ion K+; zinc ion Zn2+; fluoride ion F-

11) Cd2+ = 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p64d10

electron dot structures
Electron Dot Structures
  • Electron dot structure = chemical symbol of an atom surrounded by dots representing valence electrons.
    • Ex: Lithium (1 valence e-)
    • Zinc (2 valence e-s)
    • Carbon (4 valence e-s)
    • Bromine (7 valence e-s)
noble gas configurations
Noble Gas Configurations
  • Noble gases are in group 8A
    • 8 valence electrons = full octet
    • Valence shell = ns2np6

Neon: 1s22s22p6

Argon: 1s22s22p63s23p6

Krypton: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6

noble gas configurations1
Noble Gas Configurations
  • Old idea: Atoms gain or lose electrons to form ions with full octets in their valence shell
  • New idea: Atoms with full octets in their valence shell have electron configurations similar to a noble gas.

Sodium

Neon

electron configuration of ions
Electron configuration of ions
  • How do I write the electron configuration of an ion?
    • Calculate the number of electrons in the ion
    • Proceed as usual
  • Example: Al  Al3+ + 3e-
    • Al (13 e-): 1s22s22p63s23p1
    • Al3+(10 e-): 1s22s22p6 = Ne: 1s22s22p6
electron configuration of ions1
Electron configuration of ions
  • Exception: Metals in periods 4 and higher lose electrons from their highest energy levels not their highest energy orbitals.
  • Example:
    • Iron (26 e-): 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d6
    • Fe2+: 1s22s22p63s23p63d6
    • Why not lose higher energy e-s in 3d?
      • Because 4s2 are the valence electrons. Losing them leaves you with a full third valence shell.