slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
New York 7 March 2012 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
New York 7 March 2012

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 34

New York 7 March 2012 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Briefing to the Permanent Missions to the United Nations Prof. Hamid Ghodse President of the International Narcotics Control Board. New York 7 March 2012. 1909 Shanghai Conference 1912 Convention 1925 Convention Permanent Central Opium Board established 1931 Convention

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

New York 7 March 2012

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Briefing to the Permanent Missions

to the United Nations

Prof. Hamid Ghodse

President of the International Narcotics Control Board

New York

7 March 2012

international drug control treaties
1909 Shanghai Conference

1912 Convention

1925 Convention

Permanent Central Opium Board established

1931 Convention

Drug Supervisory Body established

1936 Convention

1948 Protocol

1953 Protocol

International Drug Control Treaties
international drug control treaties1
1961 Single Convention

on Narcotic Drugs

International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) established

1972 Protocol amending the Convention

1971 Convention

on Psychotropic Substances

1988 Convention

against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances

International Drug Control Treaties
promoting accession to the conventions
Promoting accession to the conventions

* Including Afghanistan and Chad, which are party to the 1961 Convention in its unamended form, and Bolivia, which ceased to be a party to the 1961 Convention in January 2012

ensuring that cultivation, production, manufacture and utilization of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances are only available for medical and scientific purposes, while preventing their diversion.

preventing illicit cultivation, production, manufacture, trafficking and use of drugs.

evaluating and recommending chemicals for possible international control.

monitoring chemicals and preventing their diversion into illicit channels.

identifying weaknesses in the implementation of the international drug control conventions and suggesting remedial action.

INCB – independent and quasi-judicial control organ monitoring the implementation of the United Nations drug control conventions
composition of the board
Composition of the Board
  • 13 Members elected by ECOSOC
    • 10 nominated by Governments
    • 3 nominated by WHO
  • serving in their personal capacity - not as government representatives
election of board members
Candidates are elected to the Board by ECOSOC in New York

For a period of 5 years

10 seats upon nominations by Governments

3 seats upon nominations by WHO

Board members can be re-elected

Election of Board Members
election of board members1
Qualifications of candidates to be elected to the Board

“Members of the Board shall be persons who, by their competence, impartiality and disinterestedness, will command general confidence”

Article 9, paragraph 2, 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

Election of Board Members
impartiality of candidates
Impartiality – central principle

“During their term of office they shall not hold any position or engage in any activity which would be liable to impair their impartiality in the exercise of their functions.”

Article 9, paragraph 2, 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

Impartiality of candidates
impartiality of board members
ECOSOC/Governments should ensure that the principle of impartiality is adhered to at the time of election

INCB has established internal procedures to ensure impartiality during the term of office of Board members

Impartiality of Board Members
Member of Government

(e.g., Attorney General, law enforcement officials, persons with advisory functions)

Representation of Government at international forums on drug related issues

Any private or public activity impairing impartiality

(e.g. function in the pharmaceutical industry)

sessions of the board
3 sessions per year, at UN headquarters in Vienna

Closed sessions

Governments invited under special circumstances

Also invited:

Executive Director, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

Chairperson of CND

Heads of relevant specialized international bodies (e.g., WHO, INTERPOL)

102nd session, November 2011 – ECOSOC Bureau videoconference

Sessions of the Board
incb secretariat
Located at UN headquarters in Vienna

Reports only to the Board on matters of substance

Administratively located within the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

Acts on behalf of the Board

Administers the statistical and estimates system, PEN-Online, as well as other data

Headed by the Secretary of the Board

INCB Secretariat
INCB is the guardian of the drug control Conventions

INCB appreciates the support of ECOSOC in ensuring that the Board and its Secretariat have adequate resources for the implementation of the Board’s mandate

dialogue with governments
Country missions



Technical visits

Dialogue with Governments
ongoing dialogue with governments
Effective and ongoing dialogue with governments has resulted in concrete actions in a number of countries:

Ratification of the conventions

Establishment of inter-ministerial coordinating bodies

Adoption or upgrading of drug control strategies

Adoption and updating of legislation

Enhancement and intensification of drug control efforts

Prevention campaigns

Drug abuse surveys

Ongoing dialogue with Governments
international cooperation
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

World Health Organization


World Customs Organization

Regional Organizations

International cooperation
incb missions 2011

Costa Rica


El Salvador

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya




United States


INCB Missions 2011
incb reports
Annual Report of the Board for 2011INCB Reports
  • Report on Article 12 of the 1988 Convention (Precursors)
  • Technical reports
    • Narcotic Drugs
    • Psychotropic Substances
incb annual report
Analyses the global drug control situation

Draws attention of Governments to weaknesses in national drug control and treaty compliance

Makes recommendations to improve drug control at the national and international levels

Addressed to Governments, the United Nations, other international organizations, and regional bodies

Implementation of the recommendations is evaluated by the Board

Chapter I focuses each year on a theme of concern

INCB Annual Report
centennial of the international opium convention of the hague of 1912
Centennial of the International Opium Convention of the Hague of 1912
  • INCB Annual Report for 2011, launched in 2012, dedicated to the Centennial of the signing of the 1912 International Opium Convention
  • Almost universal adherence to the international drug control treaties
  • Almost no diversion of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances at the international level
  • International system established for the control of precursor chemicals used in illicit manufacture of drugs
  • Challenges:
    • Illicit drug trafficking and organized crime
    • Inequitable access to or overconsumption of controlled substances for medical purposes in some countries and regions
    • Marginalized communities vulnerable to the drug problem
chapter i social cohesion social disorganization and illegal drugs
Chapter I – Social cohesion, social disorganization and illegal drugs
  • Vicious cycle of social exclusion and drug problems
  • Fractured communities can be vulnerable to drug abuse
  • Factors that may affect social cohesion include:
    • Social inequality
    • Migration
    • Political and economic transformation
    • Rapid urbanisation
    • Shift in traditional values
    • Breakdown in respect for law
    • Local illicit drug economies
chapter i social cohesion social disorganization and illegal drugs1
Chapter I – Social cohesion, social disorganization and illegal drugs
  • Youth of these marginalized communities need to be protected from drug abuse
  • Recommendations include:
    • Drug abuse prevention
    • Provision of treatment and rehabilitation services
    • Addressing symbols of financial success associated with the illicit drug market and promoting positive role models
    • Community rehabilitation
    • Community policing
    • Educational and employment opportunities
chapter ii special topic bolivia s denunciation of the 1961 convention on narcotic drugs
Chapter II – Special topic:Bolivia’s denunciation of the 1961 Convention on Narcotic Drugs
  • The Government of Bolivia (Plurinational State of) denounced the 1961 Convention on Narcotic Drugs in 2011 and announced its intention to re-accede to the 1961 Convention with a formal reservation regarding coca leaf.
  • Coca leaf is a narcotic drug, subject to strict control measures
  • Bolivia is a major producer of coca leaf – possible repercussions in other countries
  • The Board notes with regret this step taken by the Government of Bolivia:
    • This step is contrary to the fundamental objective and spirit of the 1961 Convention.
    • The Board is committed to an ongoing dialogue with the Government of Bolivia.
chapter ii special topic illegal internet pharmacies
Chapter II – Special topic:Illegal Internet pharmacies
  • Illicit drugs, as well as prescription medicines, are ordered via illegal Internet pharmacies
  • Over half of the medicines from illegal Internet pharmacies are counterfeit
  • Young audiences often targeted with the help of social media
  • The Board calls on Governments to close down illegal Internet pharmacies and to seize substances illicitly ordered
  • INCB “Guidelines for Governments on preventing the Illegal Sale of Internationally Controlled Substances through the Internet” published in 2009
    • Further progress by Governments in implementation is needed
    • International cooperation is essential
Chapter II – Ensuring the implementation of the provisions of the international drug control treaties:Drug-facilitated crime
  • Occurs in many regions and countries
  • Psychoactive substances used for sexual assault and other crimes
  • Substances are often tasteless and odourless, and administered covertly
  • Drug-facilitated crimes committed more frequently than assumed – lack of comprehensive information on the problem
  • Routine analysis of blood and urine only required by one Government
  • The Board encourages all Governments to ensure that forensic proof is obtained when a drug-facilitated crime is suspected

Chapter II – Ensuring the implementation of the provisions of the international drug control treaties: Increasing use of "designer" chemicals in illicit drug manufacture

  • Non-scheduled chemicals increasingly used by criminals to bypass existing control systems and to avoid detection
  • Increasing use of “designer” precursors or pre-precursors for the illicit manufacture of amphetamine-type stimulants
  • Control measures expanded in some countries to address the issue
  • Cocaine precursor chemical, potassium permanganate, is being illicitly produced or substituted with other substances
  • PEN Online system helps limit access to precursors by criminals
chapter iii regional trends africa
Chapter III – Regional trends:Africa
  • Increasing use of shipping containers and commercial aircraft in the trafficking of cocaine through Africa, especially West Africa, into Europe.
  • Increasing flow of heroin into Africa through East Africa, leading to increased drug abuse
  • Morocco remains a major producer of cannabis resin, but cultivation has decreased significantly
  • Smuggling of amphetamine-type stimulants from Africa into other regions a new threat
  • Diversion of precursor chemicals continues, especially in East and West Africa.
  • Diverted and counterfeit drugs available on unregulated markets pose a serious public health problem
chapter iii regional trends americas
Chapter III – Regional trends:Americas
  • Area of illicit coca bush cultivation in South America decreased by 6% percent
  • South America now accounts for over half of global seizures of cocaine
  • Central America and the Caribbean continues to be a major transit area for drugs trafficked from South America to North America; escalation of drug-related violence
  • Drugs smuggled into Central America mainly by sea and increasingly by light aircraft
  • Drug-related violence continues to be widespread in Mexico, despite the Government’s determined action
  • Prescription drug abuse is now the fastest growing drug problem in the United States
chapter iii regional trends asia
Chapter III – Regional Trends:Asia
  • Significant increases in opium production in 2011 in West Asia; high levels of abuse of opiates
  • Illicit opium production continued to increase in Myanmar and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic
  • Large-scale illicit trafficking in methamphetamine, with increasing abuse, in East and South East Asia
  • Limited development of programmes for prevention and treatment of drug abuse, East and South East Asia
  • Abuse of prescription drugs and over-the-counter pharmaceutical preparations increasing in South Asia
  • Rising levels of injection drug abuse in South Asia
chapter iii regional trends europe
Chapter III – Regional Trends:Europe
  • Cannabis use increased in some countries
  • Illicit cultivation of cannabis increased dramatically in Western and Central Europe, mainly indoors and on an industrial scale
  • Increased cocaine trafficking into Europe via North Africa
  • Methamphetamine seems to be replacing amphetamine in northern Europe
  • Increasing variety of drugs of abuse, including substances not under international control
chapter iii regional trends oceania
Chapter III – Regional Trends:Oceania
  • Low rate of accession to the international drug control treaties among Pacific Island States
  • Countries not parties to all of the Conventions are increasingly becoming destinations or trans-shipment areas for trafficking of drugs and precursors
  • Trafficking of cocaine into Australia is an emerging issue
  • Organised criminal groups are actively involved in drug trafficking in Oceania
guide on estimating requirements for internationally controlled substances
Guide on Estimating Requirements for Internationally Controlled Substances
  • Over 80 percent of the world population has limited or no access to medication containing internationally controlled substances; overconsumption a problem in some regions
  • First step to remedy this situation is the identification of the actual requirements for internationally controlled substances
  • The Guide on Estimating Requirements:
    • presents various methods to calculate requirements for internationally controlled substances
    • explains the administration of the system of estimates and assessments by INCB
    • will support Governments in calculating the quantities of controlled substances required for medical purposes
    • will help Governments to prepare the estimates and assessments of annual requirements of controlled substances