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II. Political Culture. A. The Socialization of politics --. The development of traditions, values and ideologies of the American political animal. 1. HOW is political socialization developed? a. Wte of tradition + customs b. Impact of events c. Changes in the way of political elites

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Ii political culture

II. Political Culture

II. Political Culture

A the socialization of politics
A. The Socialization of politics --

The development of traditions, values and ideologies of the American political animal.

1. HOW is political socialization developed?

a. Wte of tradition + customs

b. Impact of events

c. Changes in the way of political elites

d. families

e. school

f. relationships (as the paradigms shift)

II. Political Culture

2. WHO establishes our political value system. . .Who sets the agenda?


b. Political institutions

c. Media “The New Parent”

d. family

e. Social Econonic Stratification (SES) as one grows older.

II. Political Culture

3 establishing political values
3. Establishing political values. . . the agenda?

a. Complete the chart

b. small group of 4 each. . .come to a consensus of top 3 and bottom 3

c. Instructor writes on board all 14 titles and plots results

d. discussion

e. why?




(4) Minority argument

(5) Thesis statement:

How are our political values established through out the constituency?

II. Political Culture

B america s demographics who are we
B. the agenda? America’s Demographics: Who are we?

1. Demographics

a. gender

b. occupation

c. Race

d. religion

e. SES - social class

2. Census building - It will happen every 10 years.

a. a “Nation of nations” JFK said. . .

1) First wave -- NW Europeans

2) 2nd wave - Eastern Europeans

3) 3rd Wave - Hispanics + Asians

4) Minority/majority(T-17) is influencing the great melting pot. by 2050 - Whites will be only 52% of society

At one time Blacks were the largest “reluctant” minority.

Now w/ affirmative action, they are moving up.

II. Political Culture

5) the agenda? Simpson/Mazzoli Act requires employers to document the citizenship of employees or face fines.

6) Asian influx has brought an educated elite into America. . .the typical downtrodden immigrant now is highly educated

7) Even with gambling, Native Americans maintain a dismal ranking in acquiring the American dream.

3. Demographics has also changed with the MOBILE

society. . . Frost Belt to Sun Belt: SW, SE and Texas dramatic population increases(20% growth rates) while North has 5% growth -- Congress (T-18)

must keep up with - Reapportionment! shifting 435 Hse votes

4. GRAY POWER - Baby boomers graying rapidly + they wish to collect their $5 trillion in Social Security benefits! -- Their SIGS possess clout - i,e, AARP

II. Political Culture

C how do we know america is changing
C. the agenda? How do we know America is changing. . .


  • Early 1950’s George Gallup “Polled” a microcosm of American political thought

    - a Sample --

    a) the more “random” the better. . . everyone has a chance of being selected. . .

    b) Biased sample- stated preference

    c) representative sample . i.e. Democrats only

    2. Samples are not perfect -- sampling error

    1-5% error rate per 1,-000- 2,000 responses

    3. random-digit dialing speeds up the process!

II. Political Culture

4 polls assist politicians
4. Polls assist politicians . . . the agenda?

  • in “detecting” public preferences. . .Are their shifts in thinking . . .creating possible “shifts” in policy making.

  • It has become the issue of selling policy instead of possibly doing what’s right or avoiding compromises to appease radical shifts!.

  • Politicians love them when they agree with them; they hate them when they disagree.

II. Political Culture

5. the agenda? Bandwagon effects. . .jump on board. . .instead of being prudent

6. Elections too often tied to them. . .takes over issue development.

a.. Exit poll can control elections on election day.

b. Straw polls check the pulse of a potential voter before election day, ie. the Florida debacle in the 2000 election. Gore won Florida, and then lost Florida. . .and then it was too close to call once the results were in.

c. Push Poll . . .Late poll without rebuttal. . . .

7. The questions are the key. . .and too often they are misleading!

II. Political Culture

8 polls can show
8. Polls can show the agenda?

a. relevancy, or salience of a topic + intensity

b. stability

c. direction. . .positive or negative

II. Political Culture

Putnam thesis
Putnam Thesis the agenda?

“By virtually every conceivable measure, social capital has eroded steadily. . . . (Putnam pg 24)

Assess the validity of this statement by explaining what social capital is; and providing three implications if it is truly becoming extinct.

II. Political Culture

Putnam 2
Putnam #2 the agenda?

  • Define social capital.

  • Does social capital have salutary effects on individuals, or even entire nations? Describe three factors that exist, or do not exist, when social capital is working within a society.

II. Political Culture

Putnam answers
Putnam answers the agenda?

  • Define SC = Networking among people.

    2. Extinction – lack of reciprocity; loss of prvt and public goods; more distrust; mutual concerns.

    3.Existence: collective PS; Trustworthy connections; Joiners become more tolerant; establishes personal connections. Better coping. . .We are in it together!

II. Political Culture

D what do americans really believe
D. the agenda? What do Americans really believe?

1. Liberal v. Conservative ideology. Demographically, What Americans support?

Placement on spectrum based on:

RAD Liberal Moderate Conserv Reactionary

Big Gov’t Gov’t size Small (State)

Progressive Change Status Quo

Peace (UN) Intrnatl Diplo Isolat (Security)

Gov’t controls Man Evil (discipline)

Fear Violence Control

Justice Liberties Literal Interpretation

II. Political Culture

Flickr pol spectrum
Flickr the agenda? Pol Spectrum

b. Liberal tendencies: 1, 2, 4,5,13,15,16,17, 22,23,25,26,27,30, 31,32,33,34,36,40

c. Conservative tendencies: 3,6,7,8,10,11,12,14,17,18,20,21,24,28,29,35,37,


2. True Liberals

a) Blue dogs - Conservative Democrats, Dixiecrats

b) classic liberals

c) radical liberals

II. Political Culture

5. True Conservatives the agenda?

a) moderates – RINOs - Rockefeller Republicans (i.e. Sam Jeffords)

b) Social Far right

c) Economic

6. A Moderate isn’t an ideology, just a way to look at gov’t problems and solutions.

7. Are Americans ideologues? Shifting in the winds? or just smart political elites. . .

Reagan era shift to the right. . .Clinton era shift to the left, then to the middle. . .Bush era -- Right

II. Political Culture

8 the other ideologues
8. The other ideologues the agenda?

  • Socialism – Public ownership of means of production and exchange. A left wing perspective. Market economy w/ gov’t involvement. . .Most European democracies use this approach. High taxes but “Nat’l” benefits.

  • Environmentalism – Grassroots democracy, social justice, non-violence. In a post-materialistic world, many seek to replenish the environment before it wears out. The post-materialistic world. . .

  • Libertarianism – Indiv liberty + sharply limited gov’t; isolationist; repeal all morality laws. “Get Gov’t out of your lives”. A Nevada favorite

II. Political Culture

Political compass tests
Political compass tests the agenda?

Let’s take a political ideology quiz to see if it agrees with your worksheet. Sign on to:


Take the test and then place your ideology score on the board.

II. Political Culture

D political participation the many forms
D. the agenda? Political participation: The many forms--


  • Voting. Only 50% vote in nat’l elections. Voters see a lack of political efficacy. . .not being able to politically “effect” society through the political process. Age matters.

    They have no influence. . .

    2. Join SIGS

    3. Give $$$$ to SIGS thru PACS

    4. Become a political elite

    5. Contacting gov’t officials on a regular basis

    6. Working on a campaign

    7. civil disobedience

    8. Violence

    Who: Those of higher SES participate more. . . and get more!

II. Political Culture

E mass media
E. Mass Media: the agenda?

1. Goal . . .Make $$$$

2. How. . it sells advertising but people don’t watch or read the ads unless the product is well-done!

3. Media functions:

a. inform b. guide

c. interpret d. entertain

Purpose . . .Deliver the “news”. . .

A timely, concise and Factual summation.

II. Political Culture

4 history
4. History the agenda?

  • Political mouthpieces – 1700’s – 1870’s, a partisan press is diminished by Technology that drives them away from political party support .

    b) Yellow Journalism – Muckrakers 1870s-1900s

    c) 1900 NY Times turns to Objectivity. . . And descriptive reporting>>> Facts prevail. The attempt was to inform a broad audience

    d) Today interpretive reporting prevails where the media attempts to analyze + explain. It’s a skeptical approach. . . Because politicians also attempt to control the mediums in delivering their message.

    It’s also narrowcasting vs. Broadcasting

II. Political Culture

E propaganda
e. Propaganda the agenda?

  • Definition - a persuasive attempt to control the info machine. The use or abuse of the truth. . . Also called misinformation. . . Or disinformation . . . (Reagan)

    2) How do the major players control the flow of info . . .and its interpretation of information?

II. Political Culture

3 propaganda components
3) Propaganda components the agenda?

  • Source – the disseminator

  • Message – what is being delivered

  • Receiver – a “specific target” audience

  • Delivery systems. . .print. . .electronic

    . . . Those are obvious. . .its the subtle systems many worry about because one uses psychological factors. . .the attempt to influence the minds of men. . .

II. Political Culture

4 propaganda techniques
4) Propaganda Techniques the agenda?

  • Word Games

    1) Glittering Generalities – Using + abusing the very ideas citizens of a democracy value the most. . .liberty, mom, love, patriotism, financial security. . .for the Prop sources’ purpose. . .”We must preserve democracy by taking away all civil liberties. . .We must liberate this village by destroying it. . .”

II. Political Culture

2 name calling
2) Name Calling the agenda?

  • Labeling. . .Bad works better than good.

    Rebel. . .terrorists. . .radical. . .liberal. . .Yuppie. . .Queer. . . Hooking it with a bad symbol instead of looking at the evidence. . .

II. Political Culture

3 euphemisms
3) Euphemisms the agenda?

  • An attempt to pacify the audience by hooking the unpleasant with something more palatable or acceptable.

    1)) It isn’t shell shock. . .it is combat fatigue

    2)) It isn’t a casualty. . .it’s collateral damage

    3) It isn’t murder. . .it’s being eliminated.

II. Political Culture

4b false connections
4b) False connections the agenda?

  • Transfer – Use respected symbols and attach them to your message. . .Wear that flag. . .

  • Testimonial. . .Endorsements by celebrities but are they qualified to make those endorsements? Does Tom Cruise really understand psychiatry?

II. Political Culture

4c special appeals
4c) Special appeals the agenda?

  • Plain Folks – We are “of” the people. . .

    We must rid politics of special interests. . .

    But didn’t Madison tell us to join a group because groups impact politics more than one idea. . .? Can Millionaires really identify with the middle class?

    2) Bandwagon – “Everyone is doing it.” Unite us as ONE. . .

    3) Fear > Accidents encourage us to wear seat belts! Fear appeal >> fear reducing behavior

II. Political Culture

4d logical fallacies
4d) Logical fallacies the agenda?

  • Common Logic fallacy

    1= a number

    2= a number

    1 = 2 ???

    I .e. all mothers are female. . all females are Mothers. . . ? Nope

    2) Extrapolation- Inflate the data. . .

    Approve NAFTA and thousands of jobs will go south. . . Gun control will only leave weapons to the criminals. . .

II. Political Culture

5 political cartooning
5. Political Cartooning the agenda?

5. One of the more effective displays of delivering political advice is the political cartoon.

a. Symbols. . . send a message for the recipient to interpret. It’s a blend of humor, creativity, artistic design, newsy events, and propaganda.

II. Political Culture

b. What gives political cartoonists the right to put a subjective “spin” on the news?

6. Fourth Estate (Mass Media) -- 1st amendment provides the incentive to report the “News” which is . . . .

a timely occurence that “informs the public”.

4th Estate

1st estate 2nd estate 3rd estate

Prv’t sector Public sector Gov’t sector

II. Political Culture

7 media roles
7. Media Roles subjective “spin” on the news?

  • Signaler: Alert the public. “Late breaking

    News. . . “sets the agenda. . .”

    b) Common Carrier-Gives politician a channel to communicate w/ the public. . .Let’s call a press conference. . .”+ create a sound bite.

    c. Watch dog: Expose wrongdoings of any estate.

    d. Public rep- Speaking for the masses w/o being accountable or responsible

II. Political Culture

8. That timely subjective “spin” on the news? occurence often becomes a “Media Event or creates a Media Frenzy. Get your name or picture in print or on the tube! Either through “news” events or paid advertising!

Often Pols “make” news to get on the news.

9. To combat an aggressive media, politicians have hired“Spin Masters”, those hired specifically to promote the image of the candidate!

II. Political Culture

10. President Reagan’s media advice: subjective “spin” on the news?

  • Plan ahead. . .b. offensive approach. . .

    c. control the flow. . .d. limit reporter access. . .e. discuss only your agenda. . .f. speak in one voice

    As presidents attempted to control the flow of information. this forced reporters to go on the offensive. i.e. Vietnam and Watergate era forced presidents to live in the shadow of a distrusting public.

II. Political Culture

11. And Competition in the medias has forced the media to be much more aggressive and “bend” the journalistic rules of using reliable sources, the “sound bite” and great images!

a. primary sources v.

b. secondary sources. . . “undisclosed sources claim” . . .

12. Narrowcasting (focus on specific news or issues 24 hours a day) may fulfill political junkies or spin issues out of control.

II. Political Culture

13. Politicians can manipulate the press. much more aggressive and “bend” the journalistic rules of using reliable sources, the

a. By sending up trial balloons to see how the public will react to certain issues. Then back off if the response is negative.

b. Both the political elites and the medias dance to get the upper hand. . .and both seek the advantage in dispensing their agenda. . .

c. The Press’ wishes to inform the masses. . . vs. the politicians’ attempt to put it in a good light.

d. Politicians also use negative ads v. opponents.

II. Political Culture

14. TV has changed the playing field with “drama” footage. . . and sensationalism. It’s competitive!

15. Undoubtedly, “coverage” impacts public opinion!

a. President George Bush Sr criticized the media for its perception of a weak econ in 1992, thereby forcing his election loss. . .and Al Gore blamed the press for tying him to the Clinton debacle. . .

16. But the media gives the public a voice in politics as it maintains its watch dog function. It’s still the 4th Estate and Americans devour info in any format. . .print to the electronic!

II. Political Culture

17 who owns the media the quest for
17. Who “owns” the media? footage. . . and sensationalism. It’s competitive!The quest for $$$$

a) Mega mergers have made six (7 if Comcast goes through) media giants.

II. Political Culture

18 bloggers the news underground
18. Bloggers. . .the news underground footage. . . and sensationalism. It’s competitive!

a. Anybody can become a journalist by keeping a “journal” on line. . .Are they providing legitimate information or just ideologues spouting off. Also called free lancers or free agents. . .

1) Some have become more creditable by out working the “real” press. i.e. CBS + Dan Rather’s under reporting of George W’s Military career

2) Many are tied to SIGS.

19. In conclusion. . .even though media and Info sources abound. . .America, surprisingly does well, even though it is relatively uninformed. .

“Paradox of the masses” .The Jay Leno phenom

II. Political Culture

19 why many don t like the media
19. Why many don’t like the media footage. . . and sensationalism. It’s competitive!

  • Not objective. . .too much subjective reporting.

  • Too many Hot flashes. . .not enough substance. . .”E” focus. . . Sound bite driven

  • $$$$$ driven, not news driven.

  • Not accountable or responsible for their stories; especially bloggers.

  • Attempt to control politics w/ polling and horse race mentality.

F amassing public support
F. footage. . . and sensationalism. It’s competitive! Amassing public support

1. Special Interest groups (SIGS). . .a modern day version of Madison’s factions. . .

  • Sharing a cause for the purpose of “influencing” the gov’t at all levels, all branches. No gov’t stone shall be left unturned!

  • Political parties goals are to “make” policy. . . SIGS are Pluralists venting vs. the elites of society, or are they hyperpluralists?

II. Political Culture

2 madison sigs 10
2. Madison + SIGS #10 footage. . . and sensationalism. It’s competitive!

  • It is an inherent right to join groups!

  • Gov’t, w/ C + B’s + Sep of Pwrs will be able to control Factions. . .or will it?

  • The Dilemma:

    Gov’t has too many accesses for SIGS?

    Find an ally and the benefits will flow. . .

    Therefore SIGS can dominate a gov’t. . .bringing tension between equality + liberty. Will only a few prevail?

II. Political Culture

2 characteristics
2. characteristics footage. . . and sensationalism. It’s competitive!

  • Membership

    b. financial resources

    c. leadership

    d. organizational structure

    e. benefits:

  • Prvt goods – Union’s closed shop

  • Material incentive. . .Madison discussed property. . .

  • Purposive incentive – Doing it to save mankind

  • Collective goods – shared. . .clean air

II. Political Culture

3 types of sigs
3. Types of Sigs footage. . . and sensationalism. It’s competitive!

a. business + industry b. trade assn’s

c. organized labor d. agriculture e. professional

f. public interest g. gov’t h. cultural, religious,ethnic

i. equality interest

II. Political Culture

4 influential strategies
4. Influential strategies: footage. . . and sensationalism. It’s competitive!

a. Provide data to Gov’t + agencies. Policy specialists ( Pol parties are party generalists)

b. draft legislation via the Iron Triangle network of


Gov’t agencies

Congressional subcommittees

c. lawsuits (amicus curiae, Friend of the court)

class action court cases.

II. Political Culture

d. Education – Attend footage. . . and sensationalism. It’s competitive!issue network forums, an ad hoc collection of SIGS, media, Business + Gov’t to discuss the issues.

e. Watchdogs of gov’t. . .

f. Lobbyists- “hired guns or political persuaders, whose job is to promote the SIGS interests via. . .pressure (garnering votes, +$$$$, idealists.)

  • Inside-contacts w/ elites, giving info,forming coalitions.

  • Outside- Letter writing, seeking media time, election campaigns, PAC $$$, targeting key sources.

II. Political Culture

5 successful sigs
5. SUCCESSFUL SIGS: footage. . . and sensationalism. It’s competitive!

a. size of the group . . .

  • is it a “potential group”--- a mixture (consumers) of many who “could” belong,

  • vs.an “actual group” of hard core (NRA) followers.

  • Potential groups (or large groups) suffer from “free-rider status”. i.e. all minimum wage earners benefit from minimum wage increases. . .so why work toward it. . .

  • BUT actual groups reap their own benefits and work harder! One can make potential groups more powerful by providing “selective benefits”. ie. AARP

    b. Intensity - Single issue groups - NRA, NOW, Gun Control, abortion.

II. Political Culture

c. $$$$ - As of 1974, corporations and Unions can not directly fund political campaigns. . .BUT Political Action Committees (PACS) , the political arm of SIGS, can fund candidates’ campaigns. Over 3,800 today from 600 in 1974.

This gains access to Politicians. Ie Enron. 40% of PACS belong to Business groups.

(1) gave $134 million to incumbents in 99-2000 House election, only $17 million to the challengers. This is an Investment into the future and incumbents win almost 90%.

(a) 1974 Campaign law -- $10,000 per candidate (primary + gen election) But that is for nat’l campaigns only. . .

II. Political Culture

Buckley v. Valeo extended $$$ to “indirect” directly fund political campaigns. . .BUT Political Action Committees (PACS) , the political arm of SIGS, can fund candidates’ campaigns. Over 3,800 today from 600 in 1974.

financing (TV ads)

(b). Soft Money - 1980 - Can “earmark” funds to a political party, unlimited contributions. . . $400 million allocated in 2000 election to Dems + Republicans.

today soft money is illegal – McCain-Feinholz campaign finance law. But states control their own PAC contributions.

d. Going Public. . .reaching out to influence public opinion. . Ads sell! a great form of propaganda!

i.e. NRA and Charles Heston. . .

II. Political Culture

6. Interest groups are becoming more diverse. . . directly fund political campaigns. . .BUT Political Action Committees (PACS) , the political arm of SIGS, can fund candidates’ campaigns. Over 3,800 today from 600 in 1974.

from 6,000 to 23,000+ 9 (see chart) . . .and 90% reside in Washington D.C.

7. Interest group participation is culmination of political participatory activities.

(Issue network demo)

II. Political Culture