Political Culture Canadian & World Politics www.CraigMarlatt.com/school
Political Culture • Political Terminology • Societal Beliefs Affecting Minorities • Why Do Governments Cooperate? • Religion in Politics • Ideologies
Political Culture • Political Culture is the way in which the political system is inserted into a larger social reality of beliefs, attitudes, values, and norms. To be effective, political culture: • widespread awareness of the culture • widespread acceptance of the system • compliance to the system • expectation of behaviour of government
Political Culture • Components of Political Culture • Customs – conventionally accepted and reinforced in legal action of the state (e.g. government resigns if it feels it no longer has popular support) • Beliefs – convictions accepted in that culture (e.g. humans are selfish, so there is a need for laws) • Expectations – what ought to be or ought NOT to be done by government (e.g. politicians act in the public’s best interest; politicians don’t take bribes) • Symbols – flag, anthem, shield, logos, etc.
Political Culture • Laws – norms of behaviour set out in legislation • Values – attitudes toward what is right and desirable (e.g. the right to be free and to pursue goals within the limits of the law – Charter of Rights) • Institutions – the structures set out to accomplish all of the decisions (e.g. ministries, agencies, crown corporations, etc.) • Skills – the knowledge and procedures for achieving desired goals
Influences on Politics • There are many ways in which members of a society acquire and pass along their attitudes and values about the political system. • The particular values that hold sway, as well as the relative influence and methods of these agents, vary across societies to produce fairly distinctive cultures.
Influences on Politics • Key Political Writings • Karl Marx • Friedrich Engels • Mao Tse-Tung • Ethnicity and Language Composition • Aboriginal population • home language • immigration, citizenship, and national origin • mother tongue
Influences on Politics • The Family • use and abuse of power relations • discipline • gender roles • whom to trust and whom to help • what responsibilities one bears to others • composition • married couples with or without children • other families with or without children • people living alone
Influences on Politics • The Media • Noam Chomsky et al • what gets reported • what doesn’t get reported • unsubstantiated reports • concentrated ownership of media outlets • Religion • many different religions • varying degrees of separation of church and state • atheist effect on politics
Influences on Politics • Education • varying education levels • government controlled curricula • ways of educating students • filling quotas • The Workplace • management v. unions • labour laws (of lack thereof) • employment, underemployment, and unemployment
Influences on Politics • Of particular interest in Canada…. • British Influence • American Influence • Feminism • Environmentalism • Nationalism } examples?
Nations and States • Nation – a group of people with set of common biological and psychological characteristics – there is prestige to be considered a “nation” and suggests political viability as a state (e.g. Metis, French Canadians)
Nations and States • National Identity – usually a combination of race, religion, and government with subgroups: • Race – biologically defined group whose members share a gene pool giving them common physical characteristics (e.g. skin, eye, and hair colour) • Tribe – a defined group of people who are tied together psychologically by a myth of common ancestry and who think of themselves as blood relations (obviously includes elements of biological connection as well) • Ethnic Group – a mixture of biological and psychological elements for a group of people who share a common descent (e.g. “Japanese-Canadian” or “Polish-Canadian”)
Nations and States • State – self-governing political entity • Homogenous State – one culture e.g. United States • Heterogeneous State – many cultures – “multinational” e.g. Poland, Israel • Nation-State – exists where common identities of a nation coincide with the boundaries of a sovereign authority • Binational State – e.g. Canada (originally) • Multinational State – e.g. India, former Soviet Union • Multi-state Nation – e.g. The Koreas
Nations and States • What is Canada today? • homogeneous v. heterogeneous • one nation v. binational v. multinational?
Society • Society needs rules – conflicts are inevitable as various groups pursue self-interests • need for government to arbitrate – “the machinery” • politics is the various interests attempting to move decisions in their direction
Society • In order to carry out the decisions, government needs power: • force • coercion • persuasion – through influence • authority – followed because they are believed to be right • traditional • natural • moral • legal • charisma
Society • Power alone tends to lead to its own negation (revolt!) if the society does not like the decisions. There must be legitimacy – the acceptance by society of the government’s right to hold power. • traditional acceptance of leaders • legal acceptance – the right to lead is based on the law • followership – people tend to follow “leaders”
Society • Governments are constantly striving for legitimacy so that society will follow. This is a struggle for all leaders. Most governments use all of the legitimacy areas. • With modern states, there comes a question of sovereignty – to be discussed later.
Societal Beliefs Affecting Minorities • How does a society’s view of minorities help and hinder those minorities?
Why Do Governments Cooperate? • Brainstorm pairing or groups of countries whose governments tend to work well together. What factors make them so willing to cooperate with one another?
Religion in Politics • Eastern Religions and Politics • Hinduism • Confucianism • Buddhism • Western Religion and Politics • Judaism • Catholicism • Islam • Protestantism
Religion in Politics • Hinduism • oldest of major world religions • believe in a single divinity that is present in everything • through reincarnation, at death a soul passes from one body to another – good actions in this life lead to a better situation in the next incarnation • rules for diet, family, caste (hereditary social class), and politics • doctrine of non-violence, or ahimsa, was the basis for Mahatma Gandhi’s use of civil disobedience – some Hindus opposed Gandhi
Religion in Politics • Confucianism • Confucius (551–449 BCE) created a system of “right living” known as ren • Confucius taught rulers to act humanely toward their subjects • parents, teachers, and government officials were the guardians of this civic religion (no priests) • all human relationships involved defined roles and mutual obligations – a social hierarchy • egalitarianism – the promotion of equality • co-existed with Buddhism and Taoism well, until Mao Zedong outlawed all religions in 1949
Religion in Politics • Buddhism • Siddhartha Gautama (ca. 563–483 BCE) preached that enlightenment was to be found in the Middle Way, the path that lies between indulgence and asceticism (rigid self-discipline) • many characteristics of Hinduism were adopted • a “buddha” is someone who has awakened to the true nature of universal cause and effect, and whose awareness transcends birth, suffering, and death • Emperor Ashoka made Buddhism the state religion of India and spread it throughout southeast Asia and the Middle East – diaspora of Tibetans spread it further
Religion in Politics • Judaism • Romans destroyed the Temple of Jerusalem in 70 CE, forcing Jewish people to spread throughout the world (diaspora) • in some “host countries”, they were accepted and given much religious freedom; in others, they were viewed as outsiders and treated with hostility • although both Jews and Arabs are Semitic peoples, “anti-Semitism” has come to mean hatred of the Jewish people • Hitler’s Holocaust (1933-1945) was the most extreme example of anti-Semitic behaviour
Religion in Politics • Catholicism • led by the pope, who is seen as the successor to Saint Peter as Christ’s representative on Earth • eastern and western churches evolved • western Christians used Catholicism to political advantages (carrying out the Spanish Inquisition, creating denominational schools, and discouraging divorce, abortion) • eastern Christians saw themselves as Orthodox – following the principles of the original religion • excommunication of two leaders in 1054 finished the schism • John Paul II reached out to the east, but no reconciliation
Religion in Politics • Islam • Islam is an Arabic word that means “submission” • a follower of Islam is called a “Muslim,” which means “one who submits to the will of Allah” • Muhammad (570–632 CE) recorded the word of Allah, in the Qur’an, the holy book of Islam • there is no separation of church and state in Islamic countries – no discrimination based on race or class • Christians and Muslims began fighting over access to holy sites in Jerusalem • political violence contradicts Islam’s traditional teachings - jihad(holy war) is actually the ongoing inner struggle of conscience to be a better Muslim
Religion in Politics • Protestantism • is the politics of dissent • Martin Luther(1483–1546) and the Protestant Reformation opposed the power of the Roman Catholic Church • England’s Act of Supremacy made the king or queen of England the head of the new Church of England • John Calvin, John Knox, and others appealed to the middle classes and gave rise to political democracies • Calvinism, Presbyterianism, and political voices of conscience such as Quakers are all forms of Protestantism
Religion in Politics • Religious Fundamentalism • Secularism • Individuals in Politics and Religion • Religion in Politics Today • Separation of Church and State
Religion in Politics • Religious Fundamentalism • In Christianity, fundamentalists feel that the state must be subservient to God – most evident in N Ireland • the degree of state backing of a state religion varies • there are numerous countries in the world with official religions, recognizing one of the Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Lutheran, Anglican, Islamic, Buddhist, Hindu, and Jewish religions
Religion in Politics • Secularism • is a policy of avoiding entanglement between government and religion • Disestablishment is the process of divesting a church of its status as an organ of the state • those who wish to continue with an established church take a position of antidisestablishmentarianism (!) • the First Amendment to the US Constitution explicitly bans the federal government from setting up a state church
Religion in Politics • Individuals in Politics and Religion • religious leaders and thinkers have been powerful voices of conscience in the secular world of politics • interplay of politics and religion within specific individuals can be significant • Mohandas Gandhi and Indian Nationalism • Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Anti-Nazism • Mother Teresa and the Politics of Poverty • The Dalai Lama and the Defence of Tibet • Archbishop Desmond Tutu and Apartheid
Religion in Politics • Religion in Politics Today • Religion plays a significant role in politics in many different parts of the world • Ireland and Northern Ireland (UK) • India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh • Israel and Palestine • China • Iran • United States
Religion in Politics • Separation of Church and State • at the structural level of government, separation of church and state may be clear • at the everyday level, however, religious beliefs frequently impinge on political procedures and decision making • Should a legislative session open with a prayer? • Should church property be exempt from taxation? • Should religious symbols be allowed in public schools and government offices? • Should religious beliefs have precedence over human rights legislation?
Religion in Politics • Explain why in Hinduism every political decision is also a religious decision. • In what ways was Confucianism an indispensable component of political stability in China? • How was Buddhism adopted and adapted by several Chinese emperors and the governments of various dynasties? • How did the Jewish people maintain their cultural identity despite the Diaspora? • Why were Jews often isolated socially and politically?
Religion in Politics • Describe the relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and Henry IV of Germany, Ferdinand of Spain, and Louis XIV of France. • Why did the Catholic Church split into the Western and Eastern churches? • What is the relationship between religion and government in Islam? • Why did Calvinism appeal to the middle classes? • How did the Protestant Reformation affect the relationship between church and state?
Political Ideologies • Ideology: A connected set of beliefs about people and society, which general consists of some of the following: • a set of basic assumptions about human nature and society • an interpretation of the past • an explanation of the present • a vision for the future • a goal for which to strive (usually Utopian) and a strategy to achieve this
Political Ideologies • heroes (martyrs, leaders, founding fathers, etc.) and rituals (pledges, anthems, sacred documents, etc.) • a strong emotional appeal • a simple, easily understood picture of the world, which is claims is the truth • Why have ideologies? • help people understand their society • allow people and governments to explain past actions • used by governments and societies to set future goals and policies
Political Ideologies • Examples of Ideologies • liberalism • Nazism • fascism • communism • liberalism • totalitarianism • conservatism • socialism
Political Ideologies in Canada • Conservative Party • Reform Party and Canadian Conservative Reform Alliance Party (acronyms anyone?!) • Bloc Québécois • Liberal Party • New Democratic Party
Political Ideologies in Canada • Conservative Party
Political Ideologies in Canada • Reform Party and Canadian Alliance Party
Political Ideologies in Canada • Bloc Québécois
Political Ideologies in Canada • Liberal Party
Political Ideologies in Canada • New Democratic Party
Political Ideologies in Canada • Group Presentations • Liberal • Conservative • Socialist
Origins of Political Ideologies • Classical Liberalism • Adam Smith – Wealth of Nations • major changes in Europe… • Industrial Revolution • Urbanization • …. which results in the creation of the middle class which has no political power but has lots of money • middle class begins to challenge traditional authority and revolts against the government (1789 French Revolution)