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Political Culture Canadian & World Politics www.CraigMarlatt.com/school Political Culture Political Terminology Societal Beliefs Affecting Minorities Why Do Governments Cooperate? Religion in Politics Ideologies Political Culture Political Culture

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political culture

Political Culture

Canadian & World Politics


political culture2
Political Culture
  • Political Terminology
  • Societal Beliefs Affecting Minorities
  • Why Do Governments Cooperate?
  • Religion in Politics
  • Ideologies
political culture4
Political Culture
  • Political Culture is the way in which the political system is inserted into a larger social reality of beliefs, attitudes, values, and norms. To be effective, political culture:
    • widespread awareness of the culture
    • widespread acceptance of the system
    • compliance to the system
    • expectation of behaviour of government
political culture5
Political Culture
  • Components of Political Culture
    • Customs – conventionally accepted and reinforced in legal action of the state (e.g. government resigns if it feels it no longer has popular support)
    • Beliefs – convictions accepted in that culture (e.g. humans are selfish, so there is a need for laws)
    • Expectations – what ought to be or ought NOT to be done by government (e.g. politicians act in the public’s best interest; politicians don’t take bribes)
    • Symbols – flag, anthem, shield, logos, etc.
political culture6
Political Culture
  • Laws – norms of behaviour set out in legislation
  • Values – attitudes toward what is right and desirable (e.g. the right to be free and to pursue goals within the limits of the law – Charter of Rights)
  • Institutions – the structures set out to accomplish all of the decisions (e.g. ministries, agencies, crown corporations, etc.)
  • Skills – the knowledge and procedures for achieving desired goals
influences on politics
Influences on Politics
  • There are many ways in which members of a society acquire and pass along their attitudes and values about the political system.
  • The particular values that hold sway, as well as the relative influence and methods of these agents, vary across societies to produce fairly distinctive cultures.
influences on politics8
Influences on Politics
  • Key Political Writings
    • Karl Marx
    • Friedrich Engels
    • Mao Tse-Tung
  • Ethnicity and Language Composition
    • Aboriginal population
    • home language
    • immigration, citizenship, and national origin
    • mother tongue
influences on politics9
Influences on Politics
  • The Family
    • use and abuse of power relations
    • discipline
    • gender roles
    • whom to trust and whom to help
    • what responsibilities one bears to others
    • composition
      • married couples with or without children
      • other families with or without children
      • people living alone
influences on politics10
Influences on Politics
  • The Media
    • Noam Chomsky et al
    • what gets reported
    • what doesn’t get reported
    • unsubstantiated reports
    • concentrated ownership of media outlets
  • Religion
    • many different religions
    • varying degrees of separation of church and state
    • atheist effect on politics
influences on politics11
Influences on Politics
  • Education
    • varying education levels
    • government controlled curricula
    • ways of educating students
    • filling quotas
  • The Workplace
    • management v. unions
    • labour laws (of lack thereof)
    • employment, underemployment, and unemployment
influences on politics12
Influences on Politics
  • Of particular interest in Canada….
    • British Influence
    • American Influence
    • Feminism
    • Environmentalism
    • Nationalism



nations and states
Nations and States
  • Nation – a group of people with set of common biological and psychological characteristics – there is prestige to be considered a “nation” and suggests political viability as a state (e.g. Metis, French Canadians)
nations and states14
Nations and States
  • National Identity – usually a combination of race, religion, and government with subgroups:
    • Race – biologically defined group whose members share a gene pool giving them common physical characteristics (e.g. skin, eye, and hair colour)
    • Tribe – a defined group of people who are tied together psychologically by a myth of common ancestry and who think of themselves as blood relations (obviously includes elements of biological connection as well)
    • Ethnic Group – a mixture of biological and psychological elements for a group of people who share a common descent (e.g. “Japanese-Canadian” or “Polish-Canadian”)
nations and states15
Nations and States
  • State – self-governing political entity
    • Homogenous State – one culture e.g. United States
    • Heterogeneous State – many cultures – “multinational” e.g. Poland, Israel
  • Nation-State – exists where common identities of a nation coincide with the boundaries of a sovereign authority
    • Binational State – e.g. Canada (originally)
    • Multinational State – e.g. India, former Soviet Union
    • Multi-state Nation – e.g. The Koreas
nations and states16
Nations and States
  • What is Canada today?
    • homogeneous v. heterogeneous
    • one nation v. binational v. multinational?
  • Society needs rules – conflicts are inevitable as various groups pursue self-interests
    • need for government to arbitrate – “the machinery”
    • politics is the various interests attempting to move decisions in their direction
  • In order to carry out the decisions, government needs power:
    • force
    • coercion
    • persuasion – through influence
    • authority – followed because they are believed to be right
      • traditional
      • natural
      • moral
      • legal
      • charisma
  • Power alone tends to lead to its own negation (revolt!) if the society does not like the decisions. There must be legitimacy – the acceptance by society of the government’s right to hold power.
    • traditional acceptance of leaders
    • legal acceptance – the right to lead is based on the law
    • followership – people tend to follow “leaders”
  • Governments are constantly striving for legitimacy so that society will follow. This is a struggle for all leaders. Most governments use all of the legitimacy areas.
  • With modern states, there comes a question of sovereignty – to be discussed later.
societal beliefs affecting minorities
Societal Beliefs Affecting Minorities
  • How does a society’s view of minorities help and hinder those minorities?
why do governments cooperate
Why Do Governments Cooperate?
  • Brainstorm pairing or groups of countries whose governments tend to work well together. What factors make them so willing to cooperate with one another?
religion in politics
Religion in Politics
  • Eastern Religions and Politics
    • Hinduism
    • Confucianism
    • Buddhism
  • Western Religion and Politics
    • Judaism
    • Catholicism
    • Islam
    • Protestantism
religion in politics24
Religion in Politics
  • Hinduism
    • oldest of major world religions
    • believe in a single divinity that is present in everything
    • through reincarnation, at death a soul passes from one body to another – good actions in this life lead to a better situation in the next incarnation
    • rules for diet, family, caste (hereditary social class), and politics
    • doctrine of non-violence, or ahimsa, was the basis for Mahatma Gandhi’s use of civil disobedience – some Hindus opposed Gandhi
religion in politics25
Religion in Politics
  • Confucianism
    • Confucius (551–449 BCE) created a system of “right living” known as ren
    • Confucius taught rulers to act humanely toward their subjects
    • parents, teachers, and government officials were the guardians of this civic religion (no priests)
    • all human relationships involved defined roles and mutual obligations – a social hierarchy
    • egalitarianism – the promotion of equality
    • co-existed with Buddhism and Taoism well, until Mao Zedong outlawed all religions in 1949
religion in politics26
Religion in Politics
  • Buddhism
    • Siddhartha Gautama (ca. 563–483 BCE) preached that enlightenment was to be found in the Middle Way, the path that lies between indulgence and asceticism (rigid self-discipline)
    • many characteristics of Hinduism were adopted
    • a “buddha” is someone who has awakened to the true nature of universal cause and effect, and whose awareness transcends birth, suffering, and death
    • Emperor Ashoka made Buddhism the state religion of India and spread it throughout southeast Asia and the Middle East – diaspora of Tibetans spread it further
religion in politics27
Religion in Politics
  • Judaism
    • Romans destroyed the Temple of Jerusalem in 70 CE, forcing Jewish people to spread throughout the world (diaspora)
    • in some “host countries”, they were accepted and given much religious freedom; in others, they were viewed as outsiders and treated with hostility
    • although both Jews and Arabs are Semitic peoples, “anti-Semitism” has come to mean hatred of the Jewish people
    • Hitler’s Holocaust (1933-1945) was the most extreme example of anti-Semitic behaviour
religion in politics28
Religion in Politics
  • Catholicism
    • led by the pope, who is seen as the successor to Saint Peter as Christ’s representative on Earth
    • eastern and western churches evolved
      • western Christians used Catholicism to political advantages (carrying out the Spanish Inquisition, creating denominational schools, and discouraging divorce, abortion)
      • eastern Christians saw themselves as Orthodox – following the principles of the original religion
      • excommunication of two leaders in 1054 finished the schism
      • John Paul II reached out to the east, but no reconciliation
religion in politics29
Religion in Politics
  • Islam
    • Islam is an Arabic word that means “submission”
    • a follower of Islam is called a “Muslim,” which means “one who submits to the will of Allah”
    • Muhammad (570–632 CE) recorded the word of Allah, in the Qur’an, the holy book of Islam
    • there is no separation of church and state in Islamic countries – no discrimination based on race or class
    • Christians and Muslims began fighting over access to holy sites in Jerusalem
    • political violence contradicts Islam’s traditional teachings - jihad(holy war) is actually the ongoing inner struggle of conscience to be a better Muslim
religion in politics30
Religion in Politics
  • Protestantism
    • is the politics of dissent
    • Martin Luther(1483–1546) and the Protestant Reformation opposed the power of the Roman Catholic Church
    • England’s Act of Supremacy made the king or queen of England the head of the new Church of England
    • John Calvin, John Knox, and others appealed to the middle classes and gave rise to political democracies
    • Calvinism, Presbyterianism, and political voices of conscience such as Quakers are all forms of Protestantism
religion in politics31
Religion in Politics
  • Religious Fundamentalism
  • Secularism
  • Individuals in Politics and Religion
  • Religion in Politics Today
  • Separation of Church and State
religion in politics32
Religion in Politics
  • Religious Fundamentalism
    • In Christianity, fundamentalists feel that the state must be subservient to God – most evident in N Ireland
    • the degree of state backing of a state religion varies
    • there are numerous countries in the world with official religions, recognizing one of the Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Lutheran, Anglican, Islamic, Buddhist, Hindu, and Jewish religions
religion in politics33
Religion in Politics
  • Secularism
    • is a policy of avoiding entanglement between government and religion
    • Disestablishment is the process of divesting a church of its status as an organ of the state
    • those who wish to continue with an established church take a position of antidisestablishmentarianism (!)
    • the First Amendment to the US Constitution explicitly bans the federal government from setting up a state church
religion in politics34
Religion in Politics
  • Individuals in Politics and Religion
    • religious leaders and thinkers have been powerful voices of conscience in the secular world of politics
    • interplay of politics and religion within specific individuals can be significant
      • Mohandas Gandhi and Indian Nationalism
      • Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Anti-Nazism
      • Mother Teresa and the Politics of Poverty
      • The Dalai Lama and the Defence of Tibet
      • Archbishop Desmond Tutu and Apartheid
religion in politics35
Religion in Politics
  • Religion in Politics Today
    • Religion plays a significant role in politics in many different parts of the world
      • Ireland and Northern Ireland (UK)
      • India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh
      • Israel and Palestine
      • China
      • Iran
      • United States
religion in politics36
Religion in Politics
  • Separation of Church and State
    • at the structural level of government, separation of church and state may be clear
    • at the everyday level, however, religious beliefs frequently impinge on political procedures and decision making
      • Should a legislative session open with a prayer?
      • Should church property be exempt from taxation?
      • Should religious symbols be allowed in public schools and government offices?
      • Should religious beliefs have precedence over human rights legislation?
religion in politics37
Religion in Politics
  • Explain why in Hinduism every political decision is also a religious decision.
  • In what ways was Confucianism an indispensable component of political stability in China?
  • How was Buddhism adopted and adapted by several Chinese emperors and the governments of various dynasties?
  • How did the Jewish people maintain their cultural identity despite the Diaspora?
  • Why were Jews often isolated socially and politically?
religion in politics38
Religion in Politics
  • Describe the relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and Henry IV of Germany, Ferdinand of Spain, and Louis XIV of France.
  • Why did the Catholic Church split into the Western and Eastern churches?
  • What is the relationship between religion and government in Islam?
  • Why did Calvinism appeal to the middle classes?
  • How did the Protestant Reformation affect the relationship between church and state?
political ideologies
Political Ideologies
  • Ideology: A connected set of beliefs about people and society, which general consists of some of the following:
    • a set of basic assumptions about human nature and society
    • an interpretation of the past
    • an explanation of the present
    • a vision for the future
    • a goal for which to strive (usually Utopian) and a strategy to achieve this
political ideologies40
Political Ideologies
    • heroes (martyrs, leaders, founding fathers, etc.) and rituals (pledges, anthems, sacred documents, etc.)
    • a strong emotional appeal
    • a simple, easily understood picture of the world, which is claims is the truth
  • Why have ideologies?
    • help people understand their society
    • allow people and governments to explain past actions
    • used by governments and societies to set future goals and policies
political ideologies41
Political Ideologies
  • Examples of Ideologies
    • liberalism
    • Nazism
    • fascism
    • communism
    • liberalism
    • totalitarianism
    • conservatism
    • socialism
political ideologies in canada43
Political Ideologies in Canada
  • Conservative Party
  • Reform Party and Canadian Conservative Reform Alliance Party (acronyms anyone?!)
  • Bloc Québécois
  • Liberal Party
  • New Democratic Party
political ideologies in canada45
Political Ideologies in Canada
  • Reform Party and Canadian Alliance Party
political ideologies in canada48
Political Ideologies in Canada
  • New Democratic Party
political ideologies in canada49
Political Ideologies in Canada
  • Group Presentations
    • Liberal
    • Conservative
    • Socialist
origins of political ideologies
Origins of Political Ideologies
  • Classical Liberalism
    • Adam Smith – Wealth of Nations
    • major changes in Europe…
      • Industrial Revolution
      • Urbanization
    • …. which results in the creation of the middle class which has no political power but has lots of money
    • middle class begins to challenge traditional authority and revolts against the government (1789 French Revolution)
origins of political ideologies51
Origins of Political Ideologies
    • liberals see this as justified, they support Smith’s ideas and oppose absolutism – they later split into our modern day “liberals” and “conservatives”
    • conservatives don’t like this challenge to the traditional authority, they resist change
  • 1980s - Iron Lady, Ronny, Boy from Baie Comeau
origins of political ideologies52
Origins of Political Ideologies
  • Reform Liberalism
    • John Maynard Keynes (and others)
    • focused on freedoms in life
      • pot, porn, gay rights, etc…
      • “The State has no business in the bedrooms of the nation.”
    • more democratic, interventionist in economics
      • trying to guarantee a minimum standard of living
    • more eager to provide collective goods via the state
      • UI, CPP, …. redistribution of wealth by progressive income tax, etc.
origins of political ideologies53
Origins of Political Ideologies
  • rose out of the concerns for the new working class of the Industrial Revolution
  • today, growth of large corporations and reduction in the number of competitors in key markets are of concern
origins of political ideologies54
Origins of Political Ideologies
  • Conservative Principles
    • reverence for the past (e.g. Queen)
    • organic conception of society (e.g. societies are greater than the sum of their parts)
    • constitutional continuity
    • opposition to revolution
    • cautious reform
    • religious basis of state
    • divine source of legitimate authority
    • priority of duties to rights
origins of political ideologies55
Origins of Political Ideologies
  • loyalty
  • common sense and pragmatism
  • economic orientation – market economy
  • examples
    • Lord’s Prayer at school
    • Sunday shopping
    • women covered in Muslim states
    • class system
    • the “American Dream”
    • slavery in the southern United States
origins of political ideologies56
Origins of Political Ideologies
  • Neo-Conservatism
    • mainly economics
    • rising out of rising debts, growing size of government and taxes
origins of political ideologies57
Origins of Political Ideologies
  • Socialism
    • emerges in the 19th century as a response to the horrors of the Industrial Revolution
      • working conditions
      • living conditions
      • lack of response by the liberal governments
    • “a political and economic theory in which the means of production and distribution are owned, managed, or controlled by a central, democratically elected authority”
    • based on some form of “Utopian” vision
    • planning by government, public ownership, equality of outcome, collectivism
origins of political ideologies58
Origins of Political Ideologies
  • Utopian Socialists
    • create ideal societies (communes) so all can see the benefits
    • democratically created institutions
  • Revolutionary Socialists
    • appeal to action
    • went beyond economics to sociology – alienation
    • aka ___________________