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CO 2 Sequestration. Catherine Peters Princeton University Deep Carbon Cycle Workshop May 15-17, 2008 Carnegie Institution Geophysical Laboratory. CO 2 Capture and Storage (CCS). Fuels. Processes. Storage options. INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC).

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CO 2 Sequestration


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co 2 sequestration

CO2 Sequestration

Catherine Peters

Princeton University

Deep Carbon Cycle Workshop

May 15-17, 2008

Carnegie Institution Geophysical Laboratory

co 2 capture and storage ccs
CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS)

Fuels

Processes

Storage options

INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

geological storage options
Geological storage options

INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

co 2 phase diagram
CO2 phase diagram

100

Supercritical

Fluid

Critical Point

Solid

800 m

10

depth

Liquid

Pressure [MPa]

1

Land

Gas

surface

0.1

-80

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

Temperature [deg C]

Deeper than

3000 m, CO2

Is denser than

sea water.

Density: 500 kg/m3

Data from Span and Wagner 1996

geographical relationship between sources and storage opportunities
Geographical relationship between sources and storage opportunities

INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Global distribution of large stationary sources of CO2 (Based on a compilation of publicly available information on global emission sources, IEA GHG 2002)

geographical relationship between sources and storage opportunities1
Geographical relationship between sources and storage opportunities

Storage prospectivity

Highly prospective sedimentary basins

Prospective sedimentary basins

Non-prospective sedimentary basins, metamorphic and igneous rock

Data quality and availability vary among regions

INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Prospective areas in sedimentary basins where suitable saline formations, oil or gas fields, or coal beds may be found. Locations for storage in coal beds are only partly included. Prospectivity is a qualitative assessment of the likelihood that a suitable storage location is present in a given area based on the available information. This figure should be taken as a guide only, because it is based on partial data, the quality of which may vary from region to region, and which may change over time and with new information (Courtesy of Geoscience Australia).

planned and current locations of geological storage projects
Planned and current locations of geological storage projects

INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

potential for leakage
Potential for Leakage

INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

trapping mechanisms
Trapping Mechanisms

INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

natural analogues
Natural Analogues

Basins with high CO2 content. (Baines and Worden, 2004)

mm v measurement monitoring and verification
“MM&V” Measurement, Monitoring and Verification

1996 1999 2001

Example: EU’s CO2SINK project in Ketzin, Germany

Example: Seismic monitoring at Sleipner

peters research related to co 2 sequestration
Peters’ research related to CO2 sequestration
  • Crandell, L.E., B. R. Ellis, J. Cheung, C. A. Peters. “Injection of CO2 and co-contaminant gases: Are separation costs justifiable?”, Seventh Annual Conference on Carbon Capture & Sequestration, Pittsburgh, PA. May 2008.
  • Peters, C. A. 2008. “Accessibilities of reactive minerals in consolidated sedimentary rock: A BSE imaging study of three sandstones.” Chemical Geology, submitted.
  • Ellis, B. R., Peters, C. A., Buschkuehle, M. 2007. “Formation Buffering Potential Pertaining to Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide”, EOS Trans. AGU, 88(52) Fall Meet. Suppl. Abstract U43C-1378.
  • Li, L.; C. A. Peters; M. A. Celia. 2007. "Applicability of Averaged Concentrations in Determining Geochemical Reaction Rates in Heterogeneous Porous Media", American Journal of Science. In Press.
  • B.R. Ellis; K.M. Bowman; C.A. Peters; M. Buschkuehle. 2007. "Consideration of formation buffering potential and reactive mineral availability pertaining to geological storage of carbon dioxide" Goldschmidt 2007. Cologne Germany. Download PDF of poster
  • D. Kavetski; C.A. Peters; M.A. Celia; B. Lindquist. 2007. "Upscaling reaction rate laws in geochemical reactive transport using pore-scale network models" Goldschmidt 2007. Cologne Germany. Download PDF of poster
  • Li, L.; C. A. Peters; M. A. Celia. 2007. "Effects of mineral spatial distribution on reaction rates in porous media" Water Resources Research 43, W01419, doi: 10.1029/2005WR004848. Download reprint.
  • Li, L.; C. A. Peters; M. A. Celia. 2007. "Reply to 'Comment on upscaling geochemical reaction rates using pore-scale network modeling' by Peter C. Lichtner and Qinjun Kang", Advances in Water Resources, 30:691-695.
  • Li, L.; C. A. Peters; M. A. Celia. 2006. "Upscaling Geochemical Reaction Rates Using Pore-Scale Network Modeling." Advances in Water Resources, 29:1351-1370. Download reprint
  • Giammar, D. E.; R. G. Bruant, Jr.; and C. A. Peters. 2005. "Forsterite Dissolution and Magnesite Precipitation at Conditions Relevant for Deep Saline Aquifer Storage and Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide", Chemical Geology: 217:257-276.
  • Bruant, R. G. Jr.; Guswa, A. J.; Celia, M. A.; Peters, C. A. "Safe Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Deep Saline Aquifers", Feature article in Environmental Science and Technology. 36(11):240A-245A, 2002. Download Reprint.

Research funding from U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER15636.

maturity of component technologies
Maturity of component technologies

Post-combustion

Industrial separation

Oxyfuel combustion

Pre-combustion

Transport

Mineral carbonation

Gas and oil fields

Enhanced Coal Bed Methane

Enhanced Oil Recovery

Ocean storage

Saline formations

Industrial utilization

Economically feasible under specific conditions

Mature market

Demonstration phase

Research phase

INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

ocean storage
Ocean storage

INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

slide23

M(II)CO3

H+

CaAl2Si2O8(s) Ca2+

Mg5Al2Si3O10(OH)8(s) Mg2+

M(II)AlxSiyOz

H+

M(II)CO3

M2+

M2+

CO32-

CaCO3 (s)Ca2+

Mg2+ + CO3= MgCO3 (s)

changes in porosity and permeability
Changes in porosity and permeability

Source: J. W. Johnson et al. 2004