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Theories of Government. Types of Government. Needs for a “state”. Dictatorship Monarchy Democracy/Republic Parliamentary. Population, Territory, Sovereignty, Government Where does this concept of a “nation” come from?. How much of the world is “free”?. How Government Arises.

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types of government
Types of Government

Needs for a “state”

  • Dictatorship
  • Monarchy
  • Democracy/Republic
  • Parliamentary

Population, Territory, Sovereignty, Government

Where does this concept of a “nation” come from?

how government arises
How Government Arises
  • Who chooses?
  • What choices are available?
  • What is the need of the state?

Theories of Government

Force, evolutionary, divine right, social contract

How has government itself evolved over human history?

classes wealth an educated populous
Classes, wealth, an educated populous

According to Aristotle….

  • Why you can have Democracy and Republican Government in Greece and Rome?
  • Aristotle’s Politics –

“the politician and lawgiver is wholly occupied with the city-state, and the constitution is a certain way of organizing those who inhabit the city-state” (III.1.1274b36-8).

  • Polity – Combines elements of an oligarchy and that of a democracy

Aristotle’s definitions of JUSTICE –


Equality or fairness

more on aristotle
More on Aristotle….
  • From his “Nicomachean Ethics” - “The end [or goal] of politics is the best of ends; and the main concern of politics is to engender a certain character in the citizens and to make them good and disposed to perform noble actions.”
from greece to rome to the usa
From Greece to Rome to the USA

What was in between?

  • Divine Right – God knows who should rule. That ruler knows what’s best for the people
  • Conquerors who do not consider the best for the people

Both indicate a one-way relationship

When did government originate to “preserve, protect, and defend”? In other words, when did it mean something to be a citizen of a state?

view of human beings in human history
View of “Human” Beings in Human History

Louis IVX – good example of a Divine Right Ruler – “L’etat. C’estmoi.” Ruled during the height of Mercantilism (wealth of the state determined its power)

For a government to have a two-way relationship (contract), what needs to be present?

putting the human in human history
Putting the “Human” in Human History
  • Rights – Natural or otherwise granted
  • Recognition that government should exist FOR the people, not to control them
  • This is why we see an evolution from the totalitarianism of Monarchies and empires, and to governments by and for the people
enlightenment philosophy
Enlightenment Philosophy
  • Changed function of Government from top down to the concept of a Contract between the government and the governed
  • Philosopher – Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire, Montesquieu among many others
  • Originated in France
locke vs hobbes
John Locke

English-studied philosophy and science

Greatly influence by the ideas of Descartes

Affected by the Glorious Revolution

Argued that Natural Law affirms citizen’s rights to make government answer to the people.

Wrote the Two Treatises of Government

Argued that government should be based on natural rights-life, liberty, and the pursuit of property.

Government should be based on social contract-an agreement between rulers and people, if a ruler took away people’s natural rights, the people had a right to revolt and set up a new government.

Locke vs. Hobbes
locke vs hobbes1
Locke vs.. Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes

  • English-wrote about government and society.
  • Strongly affected by the execution of King Charles I.
  • Wrote the Leviathan
  • Argued that Natural law made absolute monarchy the best form of government because people were “nasty, brutish, and short,” they need to obey government and have a leader who would give people direction.
historical developments during the enlightenment and post enlightenment europe
Historical Developments During the Enlightenment and post-Enlightenment Europe
  • American and French Revolutions
  • European Colonization
  • End of Slave Trade and Slavery as an institution
  • 1848 Revolutions in Europe
different types of government
Different Types of Government
  • Totalitarian
  • Authoritarian
  • Aristocracy
  • Theocracy
  • Oligarchy
  • Democracy
  • Direct Democracy
  • Anarchy (no government)

How do different GOVERNMENTS emerge?

Through choice or by force?

What are the problems with each type of government?

the american revolution
The American Revolution
  • Taxation without Representation
    • Sugar Act
    • Stamp Act
      • These laws were directed towards having the colonists pay for the French and Indian War and others
    • Quartering Soldiers
    • The American Colonists leaned on Enlightenment Philosophies to center their fight against the British – they wanted “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”