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LIQUID STATE PROCESSES. Partial melting and fusion of joint Physical and mechanical changes taking place Can be with application of pressure or by addition of filler material Prior to joining, PREPARATION TO BE DONE STANDARDS- AWS; ASTM- TYPES OF GROOVES, JOINTS. NITC.

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liquid state processes
LIQUID STATE PROCESSES
  • Partial melting and fusion of joint
  • Physical and mechanical changes taking place
  • Can be with application of pressure or by addition of filler material
  • Prior to joining, PREPARATION TO BE DONE

STANDARDS- AWS; ASTM-

TYPES OF GROOVES, JOINTS

NITC

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

oxy acetylene welding oaw
OXY ACETYLENE WELDING (OAW)

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

oxyacetylene welding oaw

Oxyacetylene Welding (OAW)

The oxyacetylene welding process uses a combination of oxygen and acetylene gas to provide a high temperature flame.

oxyacetylene welding oaw1
Oxyacetylene Welding (OAW)
  • OAW is a manual process in which the welder must personally control the the torch movement and filler rod application
  • The term oxyfuel gas welding outfit refers to all the equipment needed to weld.
  • Cylinders contain oxygen and acetylene gas at extremely high pressure.

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

oxy acetylene gas welding
Oxy acetylene gas welding

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

slide8
STEPS for OAW
  • PREPARE THE EDGES AND MAINTAIN PROPER POSITION- ………………………….(USE OF FIXTURES, CLAMPS)
  • OPEN ACETYLENE AND IGNITE
  • OPEN OXYGEN AND ADJUST FLAME
  • HOLD TORCH AT ABOUT 45O AND FILLER METAL AT 30 TO 40 O
  • TOUCH FILLER ROD TO JOINT AND CONTROL MOVEMENT
  • SINGLE BEAD MADE

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

slide9
FOR DEEP JOINTS, MULTIPLE PASSES
  • CLEANING EACH WELD BEAD IS IMPORTANT
  • EQUIPMENT- WELDING TORCH- VARIOUS SIZES AND SHAPES
  • CYLINDERS DIFFERENT THREADS, ANCHORED AND NOT DROPPED

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

slide10
CAPABILITIES
  • LOW COST. MANUAL AND HENCE SLOW
  • PORTABLE, VERSATILE AND ECONOMICAL FOR LOW QUANTITY AND REPAIR WORKS
  • FOR ALL FERROUS AND NONFERROUS METALS

LIMITATIONS THICKNESS < 6 MM

  • SKILL ESSENTIAL---FOR PIPE, PRESSURE VESSELS, LOAD BEARING STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

oxygen cylinders
Oxygen Cylinders
  • Oxygen is stored within cylinders of various sizes and pressures ranging from 2000- 2640 PSI. (Pounds Per square inch)
  • Oxygen cylinders are forged from solid armor plate steel. No part of the cylinder may be less than 1/4” thick.
  • Cylinders are then tested to over 3,300 PSI using a (NDE) hydrostatic pressure test.

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

oxygen cylinders1
Cylinders are regularly re-tested using hydrostatic (NDE) while in service

Cylinders are regularly chemically cleaned and annealed to relieve “jobsite” stresses created by handling .

Oxygen Cylinders

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

cylinder transportation
Cylinder Transportation
  • Never transport cylinders without the safety caps in place
  • Never transport with the regulators in place
  • Never allow bottles to stand freely. Always chain them to a secure cart or some other object that cannot be toppled easily.

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

oxygen cylinders2
Oxygen cylinders incorporate a thin metal “pressure safety disk” made from stainless steel and are designed to rupture prior to the cylinder becoming damaged by pressure.

The cylinder valve should always be handled carefully

Oxygen Cylinders

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

pressure regulators for cylinders
Reduce high storage cylinder pressure to lower working pressure.

Most regulators have a gauge for cylinder pressure and working pressure.

Pressure Regulators for Cylinders

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

pressure regulators for cylinders1
Regulators are shut off when the adjusting screw is turn out completely.

Regulators maintain a constant torch pressure although cylinder pressure may vary

Regulator diaphragms are made of stainless steel

Pressure Regulators for Cylinders

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

pressure regulators gauges using a bourdon movement
Gas entering the gauge fills a Bourdon tube

As pressure in the semicircular end increases it causes the free end of the tube to move outward.

This movement is transmitted through to a curved rack which engages a pinion gear on the pointer shaft ultimately showing pressure.

Pressure Regulators Gauges Using a “Bourdon” movement

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

regulator hoses
Hoses are are fabricated from rubber

Oxygen hoses are green in color and have right hand thread.

Acetylene hoses are red in color with left hand thread.

Left hand threads can be identified by a groove in the body of the nut and it may have “ACET” stamped on it

Regulator Hoses

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

check valves flashback arrestors
Check valves allow gas flow in one direction only

Flashback arrestors are designed to eliminate the possibility of an explosion at the cylinder.

Combination Check/ Flashback Valves can be placed at the torch or regulator.

Check Valves &Flashback Arrestors

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

acetylene gas
Acetylene Gas
  • Virtually all the acetylene distributed for welding and cutting use is created by allowing calcium carbide (a man made product) to react with water.
  • The nice thing about the calcium carbide method of producing acetylene is that it can be done on almost any scale desired. Placed in tightly-sealed cans, calcium carbide keeps indefinitely. For years, miners’ lamps produced acetylene by adding water, a drop at a time, to lumps of carbide.
  • Before acetylene in cylinders became available in almost every community of appreciable size produced their own gas from calcium carbide.

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

acetylene cylinders
Acetylene Cylinders
  • Acetylene is stored in cylinders specially designed for this purpose only.
  • Acetylene is extremely unstable in its pure form at pressure above 15 PSI (Pounds per Square Inch)
  • Acetone is also present within the cylinder to stabilize the acetylene.
  • Acetylene cylinders should always be stored in the upright position to prevent the acetone form escaping thus causing the acetylene to become unstable.

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

acetylene cylinders1
Cylinders are filled with a very porous substance “monolithic filler” to help prevent from large pockets of pure acetylene forming

Cylinders have safety (Fuse) plugs in the top and bottom designed to melt at 212° F (100 °C)

Acetylene Cylinders

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

acetylene valves
Acetylene cylinder shut off valves should only be opened 1/4 to 1/2 turn

This will allow the cylinder to be closed quickly in case of fire.

Cylinder valve wrenches should be left in place on cylinders that do not have a hand wheel.

Acetylene Valves

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

oxygen and acetylene regulator pressure settings
Oxygen and Acetylene Regulator Pressure Settings
  • Regulator pressure may vary with different torch styles and tip sizes.
  • PSI (pounds per square inch) is sometimes shown as PSIG (pounds per square inch -gauge)
  • Common gauge settings for cutting
    • 1/4” material Oxy 30-35psi Acet 3-9 psi
    • 1/2” material Oxy 55-85psi Acet 6-12 psi
    • 1” material Oxy 110-160psi Acet 7-15 psi
  • Check the torch manufactures data for optimum pressure settings

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

regulator pressure settings
Regulator Pressure Settings
  • The maximum safe working pressure for acetylene is 15 PSI !

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

typical torch styles
A small welding torch, with throttle valves located at the front end of the handle. Ideally suited to sheet metal welding. Can be fitted with cutting

attachment in place of the welding head shown. Welding torches of this general design are by far the most widely used. They will handle any oxyacetylene welding job, can be fitted with multiflame (Rosebud) heads for heating applications, and accommodate cutting attachments that will cut steel 6 in. thick.

A full-size oxygen cutting torch which has all valves located in its rear body. Another style of cutting torch, with oxygen valves located at the front end of its handle.

Typical torch styles

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

slide28
Fuels
  • The most commonly used fuel gas is acetylene.
  • Other gases used are propylene, liquified petroleum gas (LPG), propane, natural gas, hydrogen, and MAPP gas.
  • Acetylene and gases that liquify under cylinder pressure should only be used where it can be relied on that the gas cylinder in use will always be vertical with its valve on top.
  • Note that there is not a single gas called "oxyacetylene"; that misconception is sometimes found among the unknowledgeable.
slide29
Acetylene
  • Acetylene is the fuel first used for oxy-fuel welding and remains the fuel of choice for repair work and general cutting and welding. Acetylene gas is shipped in special cylinders designed to keep the gas dissolved.
  • The cylinders are packed with various porous materials (e.g. kapok fibre, diatomaceous earth, or, formerly, asbestos), then filled about half way with acetone.
  • Acetylene dissolves into the acetone. This method is necessary because above 207 kPa (30 lbf/in²) acetylene is unstable and may explode. There is about 1700 kPa (250 lbf/in²) of pressure in the tank when full.
slide30
Acetylene when burned with oxygen gives a temperature of 3200 °C to 3500 °C (5800 °F to 6300 °F), which is the highest temperature of any of the commonly used gaseous fuels. Its main disadvantage is its comparatively high cost.
  • As acetylene is unstable at a pressure equivalent to being roughly 33 feet = 10 meters underwater, underwater cutting and welding must use hydrogen instead of acetylene.
slide31
Hydrogen
  • Hydrogen has a clean flame and is good for use on aluminum. It can be used at a higher pressure than acetylene and is
  • therefore useful for underwater welding. For small torches, hydrogen is often produced, along with oxygen, by electrolysis of water in an apparatus which is connected directly to the torch.
  • Propane
  • Propane does not burn as hot as acetylene, and so can only be used for cutting, not for welding.
  • Propylene
  • Propylene is used in production welding.
slide32
MAPP gas
  • MAPP gas is a registered product of the Dow Chemical Company.
  • It is liquified petroleum gas mixed with methylacetylene-propadiene. It has the storage and shipping characteristics of LPG and has a heat value a little less than acetylene. Because it can be shipped in small containers for sale at retail stores, it is used by hobbyists. Other welding gasses that develop comparable temperatures require special procedures for safe shipping and handling.
typical startup procedures
Typical startup procedures
  • Verify that equipment visually appears safe ie: Hose condition, visibility of gauges
  • Clean torch orifices with a “tip cleaners” (a small wire gauge file set used to clean slag and dirt form the torch tip)
  • Crack (or open) cylinder valves slightly allowing pressure to enter the regulators slowly
  • Opening the cylinder valve quickly will “Slam” the regulator and will cause failure.

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

typical startup procedures1
Typical startup procedures
  • Never stand directly in the path of a regulator when opening the cylinder
  • Check for leaks using by listening for “Hissing” or by using a soapy “Bubble” solution
  • Adjust the regulators to the correct operating pressure
  • Slightly open and close the Oxygen and Acetylene valves at the torch head to purge any atmosphere from the system.

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

typical startup procedures2
Typical startup procedures
  • Always use a flint and steel spark lighter to light the oxygen acetylene flame.
  • Never use a butane lighter to light the flame

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

flame settings
Flame Settings
  • There are three distinct types of oxy-acetylene flames, usually termed:
    • Neutral
    • Carburizing (or “excess acetylene”)
    • Oxidizing (or “excess oxygen” )
  • The type of flame produced depends upon the ratio of oxygen to acetylene in the gas mixture which leaves the torch tip.

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

types of flames
Neutral-with inner cone(30400C-33000C), outer envelope, (21000C near inner cone, 12600C at tip)- high heating

Reducing- Bright luminous inner cone, acetylene feather, blue envelope

Low temperature, good for brazing, soldering, flame hardening

Hydrogen, methyl acetylene, propadiene also used as fuel.

Oxidising- pointed inner cone, small and narrow outer envelope

Harmful for steels, good for Cu- Cu based alloys

TYPES of FLAMES

NITC

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

oxy acetylene welding oaw types of flames
OXY ACETYLENE WELDING(OAW)Types of Flames

Neutral

Reducing

Oxidising

high heating

low temperature

good for Cu- Cu alloys

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

neutral and oxidizing flame profiles
Neutral and Oxidizing Flame Profiles

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

flame definition
Flame definition
  • The neutral flame is produced when the ratio of oxygen to acetylene, in the mixture leaving the torch, is almost exactly one-to-one. It’s termed ”neutral” because it will usually have no chemical effect on the metal being welded. It will not oxidize the weld metal; it will not cause an increase in the carbon content of the weld metal.
  • The excess acetylene flame as its name implies, is created when the proportion of acetylene in the mixture is higher than that required to produce the neutral flame. Used on steel, it will cause an increase in the carbon content of the weld metal.
  • The oxidizing flame results from burning a mixture which contains more oxygen than required for a neutral flame. It will oxidize or ”burn” some of the metal being welded.

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

quiz time
Quiz time
  • The regulator diaphragm is often made from _______?

A: reinforced rubber

B: malleable iron

C: tempered aluminum

D: stainless steel

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

quiz time1
Quiz time
  • The hose nuts for oxygen and acetylene differ greatly, because the acetylene hose nut has.

A: a left hand thread.

B: has a groove cut around it. C: may have ACET stamped on it.

D: All of the above.

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

quiz time2
Quiz time
  • An oxygen cylinder must be able to withstand a ________ pressure of 3300 psi (22753 kPa) to be qualified for service. A: atmospheric

B: hydrostatic

C: hydroscopic

D: vapor

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

quiz time3
Quiz time
  • Why is the area above 15 psig often marked with a red band on a acetylene low pressure regulator ?
  • Answer
    • Acetylene pressure above 15 psig is unstable and should not be used

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

quiz time4
Quiz time
  • True or False ?
    • A flint and steel spark lighter is the generally used to light the oxyacetylene flame.
  • Answer: True

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

quiz time5
Quiz time
  • Acetylene cylinder fuse plugs melt at a temperature of ________° F or 100°C
  • Answer
    • 212°F

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

quiz time6
Quiz time
  • What is the maximum safe working gauge pressure for acetylene gas?

A: 8 psig (55 kPa)

B: 15 psig (103 kPa)

C: 22 psig (152 kPa)

D: 30 psig (207 kPa)

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

quiz time7
Quiz time
  • The colour of and oxygen hose on a oxyacetylene welding outfit is ______?
  • Answer
    • Green/Blue

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

quiz time8
Quiz time
  • The type of safety device is used on a oxygen cylinder.

A: A fusible plug

B: A check valve

C: A pressure safety disk

D: A spring loaded plug

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

quiz time9
Quiz time
  • True or False ?
    • The regulator is closed when the adjusting screw is turned out.
  • Answer: True

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

quiz time10
Quiz time
  • The colour of acetylene hose on a oxyacetylene welding outfit is ______?
  • Answer
    • Red

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

quiz time11
Quiz time
  • No part of an oxygen cylinder walls may be thinner than _______?

A: 1/4”in (6.4 mm)

B: 3/8”in (9.5 mm)

C: 3/16”in (4.8 mm)

D: 7/32”in (5.6 mm)

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

quiz time12
Quiz time
  • To prevent the occurrence of flashbacks, a ________ should be installed between either the torch and hoses or regulators and hoses.

A: a two way check valve.

B: flame screen.

C: flashback arrestor.

D: three way check valve.

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

quiz time13
Quiz time
  • What type of safety device is used on a acetylene cylinder.

A: A spring loaded plug

B: A pressure safety disk

C: A fusible plug

D: A check valve

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

quiz time14
Quiz time
  • Mixing _______ and water will produce acetylene gas.

A: calcium carbide

B: potassium carbonate

C: carbon dioxide

D: acetylene carbide

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC

slide57

Cutting

For cutting, the set-up is a little different.

A cutting torch has a 90-degree angled head with six orifices placed around a central jet.

Oxygen Rich Butane Blow Torch Flame

Fuel Rich Butane Blow Torch Flame

The six outer jets are for oxygen and acetylene (oxy-propane devices use an array of many jets) and the central jet carries only oxygen.

Dr. N. RAMACHANDRAN, NITC