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This work was supported in part by the Los Angeles Collaborative for Teacher Excellence LACTE National Science Foundation # DUE-9453608. And Title III Grant Los Angeles Valley College Strengthening Institutions Program for Hispanic Serving Institutions U.S. Department of Education .

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slide1
This work was supported in part by the

Los Angeles Collaborative for Teacher Excellence

LACTE

National Science Foundation

# DUE-9453608

slide2
And

Title III Grant

Los Angeles Valley College

Strengthening Institutions Program for

Hispanic Serving Institutions

U.S. Department of Education

goals
Goals
  • Illustrate some teaching strategies that promote active learning
  • Demonstrate nongraded assessment tools that can be used to monitor learning and teaching
what do you think
What do you think?

Use number cards to answer true (1) or false (2)

1._____All students respond equally to lecture.

2._____Lecture is the most efficient way of

producing learning.

3._____Lecture is needed to cover the material.

4._____Active learning means no lecture.

benefits of lecture
Benefits of Lecture

With your group, discuss and list those aspects of lecture that you consider essential to teaching. (2 minutes)

some benefits of lecture
Some Benefits of Lecture
  • Covers the material
  • Controls learning process
  • Organizes content
  • Nonthreatening
  • Comfortable
drawbacks of lecture
Drawbacks of Lecture

In your group, discuss those aspects of lecture that do not work well.

(2 minutes)

what don t we like about lecture
What don’t we like about lecture?
  • Students are passive
  • Difficult to sustain listening effort
  • Minimal retention
  • One learning style
  • Cannot monitor understanding
what research says about lecture
What Research Says About Lecture
  • Lecture method used by

61% of humanities professors

81% of social scientists

89% of science and math professors

  • Lecturing has become synonymous with teaching
attention to lecture
Attention to Lecture
  • Students not attentive 40% of time
  • Information overload leads to “mental lapses”
  • Even motivated students experience inattention
  • High the first 10-15 minutes, declines, and peaks again in the final 5-10 minutes
retention of lecture
Retention of Lecture
  • 89% of freshman cannot determine the major lecture ideas (Kiewra, 1987)
  • A slow lecture rate (100 wpm) far exceeds a student’s ability to record at 20 wpm. (Green, 1928)
  • At best, 20% of the information enters student’s notes. (Carrier, 1983)
  • When tested after lecture using notes, students recalled no more than 42% of the lecture. (McLeish, 1968)
learning check
Learning Check

1. The percentage of college science professors using the lecture method

1) 25% 2) 56% 3) 89%

2. How many minutes into lecture do most students pay attention?

1) 10-15 2) 20-30 3) 30-45

3. Percent of class time students are not attentive

1) 20% 2) 40% 3) 60%

learning check solution
Learning Check Solution

1. The percentage of college science professors using the lecture method

3) 89%

2. How many minutes into lecture do most students pay attention?

1) 10-15

3. Percent of class time students are not attentive

2) 40%

education trends
Education Trends

Structure

Grade levels Continuous progress

Classroom Learning centers

Group-based Individualized

Teacher’s Role

Transmitter Coach/facilitator

education trends15
Education Trends

Student’s Role

Take notes Think

Memorize Use, apply

Competitive Cooperative learning

Tools

Books Multiple resources

Evaluation/Testing

Group Individualized

Johnston, Aretz & Millis (1996)

lecture plus
Lecture PLUS

A teaching strategy that integrates student-centered activities into lecture to promote

Participation

Learning

Understanding

Success

slide17

minilecture

activities

assessment

why small group learning
Why Small-Group Learning?
  • Engages student
  • Shares teaching and learning
  • Uses more learning styles
  • Develops higher-order thinking skills
  • Helps students learn to reflect
  • Increases success and retention
resistance to small group learning
Resistance to Small-Group Learning
  • Public and institutional resistance
  • Fear cannot cover all the material
  • Students do not want to change
  • Lots of work initially
some tips
Some Tips
  • Begin first day
  • Provide a non-threatening environment
  • Start small
  • Clarify procedures
  • Adapt to fit your class
  • Be prepared to find out what is not learned
first day small group activity
First Day Small Group Activity
  • Provides information about course content
  • Involves students immediately
  • Shows how your course will be different
clarification pauses
Clarification Pauses
  • Give mini-lecture (15 min)
  • Students review notes (2-3 min)
  • Instructor moves about the room
collaborative learning
Collaborative Learning
  • Form groups of 3-4 students
  • Hand out a problem set
  • Give time limit
  • Work on assigned question
  • Students present solutions to class
group behavior
Group Behavior

1. Respect each others answers and

contributions to group even if you

disagree

2. Encourage every one to contribute by

verbalizing new concepts and new terms

3. Attend all meetings of the learning team

and be on time

4. Be patient and open minded

group behavior cont
Group Behavior (cont.)

5. Be prepared for the work to be done at a

group meeting

6. Divide work into sections (share work)

7. Take time to teach each other

8. Don’t let one member do all the work

9. Respect cultural differences

10. Understand different learning styles

exact numbers
Exact Numbers

Number of people in your group ______

Number of people wearing glasses in your group _______

Number of grams in a kilogram _______

Discuss:

1. How did you obtain the above numbers?

2. Why do you think these numbers are called

exact numbers?

measured numbers
Measured Numbers

With a measuring device, determine the length and width of this slide.

Length _____ Width ______ Area _____

Discuss

1. How did you obtain the numbers for

length and width?

2. What units did you use?

3. What do you call numbers obtained by

using a measuring device?

learning check28
Learning Check

A. Exact numbers are obtained by

1. measuring 2. counting 3. definition

B. Measured numbers are obtained by

1. measuring 2. counting 3. definition

C. Exact numbers have

1. infinite number of significant figures

2. limited number of significant figures

3. no significant figures

learning check solution29
Learning Check Solution

A. Exact numbers are obtained by

2. counting 3. definition

B. Measured numbers are obtained by

1. measuring

C. Exact numbers have

1. infinite number of significant figures

how am i teaching
How am I Teaching?
  • Large gap between teaching and learning
  • The exam is too late for changes
  • Nongraded assessments monitor what students really learn
  • Faculty aid learning by giving feedback
classroom assessments
Classroom Assessments
  • Tell us what we actually taught
  • Provide us with information to improve our teaching
  • Actively involve students and teacher
  • Occur at various times during the instruction
protons and neutrons in an atom
Protons and Neutrons in an Atom

Atomic Number

Number of protons

Mass Number

Number of protons + neutrons

30

Zn

learning check33
Learning Check

An atom of zinc has a mass number of 65.

A. How many protons are in the zinc atom?

1) 30 2) 35 3) 65

B. How many neutrons are in the zinc atom?

1) 30 2) 35 3) 65

C. Another atom of zinc has 37 neutrons.

What is the mass number of this atom?

1) 37 2) 65 3) 67

learning check solution34
Learning Check Solution

An atom of zinc has a mass number of 65.

A. How many protons are in the zinc atom?

1) 30

B. How many neutrons are in the zinc atom?

2) 35

C. Another atom of zinc has 37 neutrons.

What is the mass number of this atom?

3) 67

learning check organic chemistry
Learning Check Organic Chemistry

Answer (1) SN1 or (2) SN2, neither or both(1,2)

1) ___Increased nucleophile concentration increases rate of reaction

2) ___Tertiary substrates react faster than primary

3) ___Polar, protic solvents speed up the reaction

4) ___Reaction takes place in more than one step

5) ___Increasing T increases rate of reaction

learning check organic chemistry36
Learning Check Organic Chemistry

Answer (1) SN1 or (2) SN2, neither or both(1,2)

1) ___Increased nucleophile concentration increases rate of reaction

2) ___Tertiary substrates react faster than primary

3) ___Polar, protic solvents speed up the reaction

4) ___Reaction takes place in more than one step

5) ___Increasing T increases rate of reaction

shared paragraph
Shared Paragraph
  • Write a short paragraph
  • Read by other students
  • Give feedback in groups
  • Turn in (optional)
  • Instructor reports results and reviews
the one minute paper
The One Minute Paper
  • Write a one-minute paper
  • Turn in
  • Do not grade
  • Summarize results
  • Report back
student comments
Student Comments

“You become more involved with the class and thus more a part of the material that you are learning”

“The group methods helped me understand the material for the first time. It made chemistry actually enjoyable”.

“Active participation helped me to remember concepts and learn new ones in a more timely and efficient manner”.

index card
Index Card
  • Hand out index cards
  • Students write questions
  • Sort cards
  • Determine what points need work
  • Review “muddy” points
more team activities
More Team Activities

Lab

  • Work in pairs
  • Turn in one report
  • Give one grade to each pair

Homework Projects

  • Work on Chemworks
  • Turn in one paper
  • Give one grade for the group
student assessment of the impact of small group learning
Student Assessment of the Impact of Small Group Learning

Strategy % Not % Very

helpful helpful

Chemworks 14 86

Learning Checks 15 85

Minilectures 18 82

Textbook 23 77

Group Activities 25 75

Peer Presenations 34 66

VOH/email 60 40

Office hours 51 49

119 responses

assignment
Assignment

With your group, describe how you might use one of the active learning strategies discussed today in your classroom.

slide44

“One must learn by doing the thing; though you think you know it, you have no certainty until you try. “ Sophocles“Learning is not for school, but for life”khemist@aol.com