Download
ergonomics biomechanics psy 552 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Ergonomics & Biomechanics (PSY 552) PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Ergonomics & Biomechanics (PSY 552)

Ergonomics & Biomechanics (PSY 552)

299 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Ergonomics & Biomechanics (PSY 552)

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Ergonomics & Biomechanics (PSY 552)

  2. History • 4th Century BC • Hippocrates – Father of Medicine • Studied lead poisoning among miners and metallurgists • 1st Century BC • Pliny, a Roman historian, wrote of the dangers of cinnabar

  3. History (cont) • 2nd Century AD • Galen wrote about various occupational diseases. • 15th Century AD • Ulrich Ellenborg published a treatise on toxic fumes and vapors and their control

  4. History (cont) • 16th Century • Phillipus Aureolous Theophratus Bombastus von Hohenheim (AKA Paracelsus • 16th Century • Agricola wrote De Re Metallica

  5. History (cont) • 18th Century AD • Ramazzini published De Morbis Artificum Diatriba • England – an epidemiological study revealed a condition called Devonshire Colic

  6. History (cont) • 18th Century AD • Percival Pott – recognized • 19th Century • Industrial revolution • Health & Morals of Apprentices Act • Factory Acts in England • Child labor laws in Massachusetts (1848) • Federal Safety Appliance Act

  7. History (cont) • 19th Century • Germany created a social security system that included: • British workers’ compensation act (1897)

  8. History (cont) • 20th Century • States in USA begin to implement workers’ compensation programs • Federal workers’ compensation (1908) • New Jersey, Wisconsin (1911) • US Social Security Act (1935)

  9. History (cont) • 20th Century • Occupational Safety & Health Act (1970) • Creates two new government agencies

  10. OSHA • Focused primarily on acute and airborne safety hazards. • In the mid 1980s back injuries accounted for 30% of workplace injuries • In 1993, cumulative trauma disorders accounted for 62% of new workplace injuries.

  11. OSHA (cont) • Ergonomics became a focus in the 1990’s • Has attempted several times to implement ergonomic standards. • Recent standards implemented by President Clinton were repealed by President Bush.

  12. OSHA (cont) • OSHA’s new program (see http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/ergonomics/) relies on a 4-pronged approach: • Guidelines • Enforcement • Outreach & assistance • National Advisory Committee • Individual states have ergonomic standards (e.g., CA, WA).

  13. NIOSH • Has published research based lifting guidelines, among other things, to reduce back injuries. • The new limit is 51 lbs in the under the best conditions (1993).

  14. Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD) Today • Are difficult to define • Are affected by a variety of factors • Mechanical • Physiological • Psychological • Contextual

  15. Mechanical

  16. Physiological

  17. Psychological

  18. Contextual

  19. Scope of MSDs • Difficult to define the scope because: • What is known

  20. Workers’ Compensation • Master-Servant Relationship • Master-Stranger Relationship