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Design for Ergonomics. MPD575 DFX Jonathan Weaver. Development History. Originally developed by Cohort 1 students: Stephen Earl, Paul Geisler, & Larry Rhein Revised by Cohort 2 students: Winnie Jimenez, Sergio Munoz, Dave Paddock & Lester Weitman. Design for Ergonomics.

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design for ergonomics

Design for Ergonomics

MPD575 DFX

Jonathan Weaver

development history
Development History
  • Originally developed by Cohort 1 students: Stephen Earl, Paul Geisler, & Larry Rhein
  • Revised by Cohort 2 students: Winnie Jimenez, Sergio Munoz, Dave Paddock & Lester Weitman.
design for ergonomics3
Design for Ergonomics
  • Introduction to DFE
  • DFE Process
  • Key Principles of DFE
  • Examples
  • DFE Software
  • DFE Hardware
  • DFE Case Studies
  • References
  • Supplemental Readings
design for ergonomics4
Design for Ergonomics
  • Introduction to DFE
  • DFE Process
  • Key Principles of DFE
  • Examples
  • DFE Software
  • DFE Hardware
  • DFE Case Studies
  • References
  • Supplemental Readings
introduction to dfe
Introduction to DFE

Ergonomics is ….”The science of matching things to people.”

  • It pays to be precise about how things suit people. It is the difference between taking a guess and taking a measurement.
introduction to dfe6
Introduction to DFE
  • Ergonomics was created in 1949 from the Greek words:
    • “ERGO” = Work
    • “NOMOS” = Natural laws

Scientific study of humans interacting within their environment

introduction to dfe7
Introduction to DFE
  • Ergonomics considers the physical and mental aspects of people in relation to a product.
  • By adding objective data about people into the design process, a product or environment can be designed so that all users are considered, not just those that resemble the designer.
introduction to dfe8
Introduction to DFE
  • Ergonomics is all about quality
  • The fact that something can be used is just not sufficient – it should be easy to use.
  • Just because most people find it easy is not sufficient either – a large and known percentage of people should be able to use it easily.
introduction to dfe9
Introduction to DFE

The outcome of applying Ergonomics is generally one or more of:

  • User success
  • User satisfaction
  • Speed
  • Safety
  • Reliability
introduction to dfe10
Introduction to DFE
  • Some Do’s and Don’ts of using Ergonomics:
  • DON’T
  • Don’t think about ‘most people’ or ‘the average’ since that will lead to low standards.
  • Don’t speculate. Try to recognize when you don’t know something about the people you are designing for.
  • Don’t design the product for yourself. Use objective data about people.
slide11

95th

95th

50th

95th

50th

95th

95th

50th

5th

50th

5th

50th

95th

5th

British

Males

5th

50th

5th

Japanese

Males

U.S.,

German &

Swedish

Females

5th

British

Females

Japanese

Females

Ergonomic Differences

  • 50th percentile U.S. male > 95th percentile U.S. female
  • U.S. female stature resembles Japanese male stature

1900

1800

1700

Height (mm)

1600

U.S.,

German &

Swedish

Males

1500

1400

1300

1200

introduction to dfe12
Introduction to DFE
  • Some Do’s and Don’ts of using Ergonomics:
  • DO’S
  • Decide who is going to use the design – age, sex, reach, strength, etc.
  • Focus on how different the worst-case users are from you.
  • Make explicit what the users’ goals will be as they use the product, and what will measure success.
introduction to dfe13
Introduction to DFE
  • Some Do’s and Don’ts of using Ergonomics:
  • DO’S
  • Consider what happens to people outside the formal design range
  • Work out what users will need to know before they can complete the tasks. Build the learning into the product, or design out the need for it.
  • Take account of stress and competing demands on the users attention. Especially important when designing labels.
introduction to dfe14
Introduction to DFE
  • Human Factors engineering & Ergonomics are commonly used interchangeably.
  • Human Factors is a discipline that optimizes the relationship between the technology and the humans.
  • Anywhere you find technology and people interacting together, there will be a need for some form of human factors and ergonomics.
introduction to dfe15
Introduction to DFE
  • Human Factors engineering & Ergonomics considers the variation within a user population and manner in which this will affect individual and group performance for a given task.
  • These variations include gender, age, sex, visual & mental capabilities, and strength.
introduction to dfe16
Introduction to DFE
  • Both Human Factors & Ergonomics are interdisciplinary sciences that deal with:
    • Human characteristics
    • Capabilities and limitations for the purpose of designing products to achieve ease of use
    • Comfort
    • Convenience
    • Health and safety
technical fields that interact with ergonomics
Technical Fields that Interact with Ergonomics

Ind. Design

Envir. Medicine

Applied Physiology

Anthropometry

Engineering

Ergonomics

Psychology

Statistics

Dynamics

Oper. Research

introduction to dfe18
Introduction to DFE

Psychology - Experimental psychologists who study people at work to provide data on such things as: Human sensory capacities, Psychomotor performance, Human decision making, Human error rates, Selection tests and procedures, Learning and training.

Anthropometry - An applied branch of anthropology concerned with the measurement of the physical features of people. Measures how tall we are, how far we can reach, how wide our hips are, how our joints flex, and how our bodies move.

Applied Physiology - Concerns the vital processes such as cardiac function, respiration, oxygen consumption, and electromyography activity, and the responses of these vital process to work, stress, and environmental influences.

introduction to dfe19
Introduction to DFE

Environmental Medicine - Concerned with such environmental factors as noise, illumination, temperature, humidity, g-forces, radiation, and noxious gases and fumes, and their effects on health and human performance.

Engineering - Provides information on electrical, mechanical, and chemical characteristics of elements and systems and principles of design, construction, and operation of structures, equipment, and systems.

Statistics - For summarizing large amounts of data on human measurements and human performance, and to design sampling schemes and experiments for the conduct of human studies and performance measurements.

introduction to dfe20
Introduction to DFE

Operations Research - Quantitative methods for the analysis of the performance of manpower, machinery, equipment, and policies in government, military, or commercial spheres.

Industrial Design - The design, color, arrangement, and packaging of equipment to combine functionality and aesthetically satisfying appearance.

introduction to dfe21
Introduction to DFE

Guides to Designing for Ergonomics:

Standards and Codes

Standards - A set of rules, conditions, or requirements that define terms; classify components, specify components; specify materials, performance, or operations; delineate procedures; or define measurements of the quantity or quality of materials, products, systems, services, or practices.

Standards can be classified as being safety or performance based.

Examples of Standards:

Federal and Military Standards

Company Standards

Foreign Standards

introduction to dfe22
Introduction to DFE

Standards cont.-

The most commonly used Standards for use by human-factors professionals:

OSHA Standards: Prepared by the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration

MIL-STD-1472D: Military Standard dealing with human-factors consideration in the design of equipment.

NASA-STD-3000: Slightly broader range of topics than the MIL-STD.

ANSI/HFS 100-1988 - Deals specifically with h.f. principals and practices in the design of visual display and terminals, associated furniture, and the office environment in which they are placed.

introduction to dfe23
Introduction to DFE

Standards cont.-

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) -

The most commonly used and most well recognized organization for standards. The organization is a federation of trade associations, technical societies, professional groups, consumer organizations, and industries that serves as the United States clearinghouse for voluntary standards activity at the national level.

Limitations of Standards:

Typically establish only minimum requirements.

They are often too general.

They usually have to be tailored.

The do not explain the Systems-Engineering Process.

introduction to dfe24
Introduction to DFE

Codes

Primarily concerned with safety matters, codes contain many regulations and recommendations that directly or indirectly address human-factor issues.

Examples of codes:

National Electrical Safety Code

Life Safety Code

BOCA National Building Code

BOCA National Mechanical Code

OSHA

dfe process
DFEProcess
  • Introduction to DFE
  • DFE Process
  • Key Principles of DFE
  • Examples
  • DFE Software
  • DFE Hardware
  • DFE Case Studies
  • References
  • Supplemental Readings
dfe process26
DFEProcess

Why Ergonomics?

  • Olden Days:Tools & machinery made by individuals for themselves or a select few.
  • 20th Century:Mass Production; designed for the “average” user.
dfe process27
DFEProcess

“Our vehicles are manufactured for the masses. They are, therefore, tailored specifically to no one.”

Ford Motor Design Center

(Ford Motor Company quote).

dfe process28
DFEProcess
  • WHY NOW?:
  • Global Markets reaching consumers with wider range of physical attributes.
  • More competition can provide customers a choice of an easier to use product.
  • Can be severe long termconsequences - unacceptable level of absenteeism, dissatisfaction, complaints, accidents and under-use of product.
dfe process29
DFEProcess

(Six principle areas of Ergonomic study, along with several examples of each).

dfe process30
DFEProcess

We see that human characteristics are extremely relevant to ergonomics, and those that are most frequently measured by ergonomists are…

  • Physical characteristics
  • Psychological characteristics
  • Biological characteristics

(The 3 primary areas of study).

key principles of dfe
Key Principles of DFE
  • Introduction to DFE
  • DFE Process
  • Key Principles of DFE
  • Examples
  • DFE Software
  • DFE Hardware
  • DFE Case Studies
  • References
  • Supplemental Readings
key principles of dfe32

User

Machine

Workspace

Environment

Key Principles of DFE

Interface Reference Model(simple but eloquent)

(Primary interfaces are adjacent, others are secondary).

key principles of dfe33

Operator

Machine

Key Principles of DFE

Input / Output Communication Model

(Shows that the outputs of one are the inputs of the other, and visa versa).

key principles of dfe34
Key Principles of DFE

System Design Model

Statement of objectives

Separation of functions

Allocation of functions

Human devel. User/machine Interface Hardware devel.

System Integration

(Ergonomics should be part of the complete process, but are most intense in red areas).

key principles of dfe35
Key Principles of DFE

Key principles of DFE – ‘VDC specific’

  • Vehicle Design Center recommends three distinct guideline segments:
    • Controls Guidelines
    • Display Guidelines
    • Seat Guidelines
key principles of dfe36
Key Principles of DFE

The Controls Guidelines determine:

  • Fundamental Criteria
    • Visibility, Interpretability, Accessibility, Operability
  • Mode Criteria
    • Continuous, Discrete, Binary, Data entry
  • Design Recommendations
    • Natural, Convenient, Feedback, Stereotype, Blind reach
  • Arrangement Criteria
    • Emergency/Frequency, Grouped, Interference, Stereotype
key principles of dfe37
Key Principles of DFE

The Display Guidelines determine:

  • Fundamental Criteria
    • Visibility, Interpretability
  • Mode Criteria
    • Quantitative, Qualitative, Range, Binary status
  • Design Recommendations
    • Simplest, Least precise, Stereotype, Distance/angle
  • Arrangement Criteria
    • Emergency/Frequency, Compact, Standards, Grouped
key principles of dfe38
Key Principles of DFE

The Seat Guidelines determine:

  • Comfort Criteria
    • Contour, Suspension firmness, Posture, Support
  • Accommodation Criteria
    • Width, Length, Height, Depth, Angle
  • Convenience Criteria
    • Adjustments, Self-evident, Pivots, Placement
  • Miscellaneous Criteria
    • Entry/Egress, Progressive resistance, Irritants
key principles of dfe39
Key Principles of DFE

Key principles of DFE – ‘generic’

  • Identify the client’s needs
  • Identify the user’s needs
  • Consider operator OP/machine IP
  • Consider operator IP/machine OP
  • Identify ergonomic issues affecting design
  • Evaluate ergonomic design effectiveness
key principles of dfe40
Key Principles of DFE

Process & Principles Summary – effective ergonomic design begins at the onset of the task.

  • Identify the needs of the client & user
  • Incorporate into statement of objectives
  • Maintain proportionate ergonomic effort
  • Evaluate ergonomic effectiveness
key principles of dfe41
Key Principles of DFE

DFE requires teamwork!

Communication is a very important factor, inside and outside of the team.

Success relies on the knowledge, resources, and support of people outside your team and outside your organization (final customer/user)

ergonomics team members
Ergonomics Team Members

Ergonomics Committee

Purchasing

Management

Materials

Engineering

Accounting

DFE Team

Marketing

Quality

Health and Safety

Medical

slide43

Ergonomic Change Cost ($)

Design Build Launch Operate

Proactive

Reactive

Reactive Versus Proactive

PD

Job 1

Availability of Funds ($)

reactive versus proactive
Reactive Versus Proactive
  • The diagram shows the relationship between cost and time
  • Ergonomic solutions will be more complex and will need more money as the design nears completion.
  • Normally, ergonomics analysis is applied to existing products and then reaction plans are developed.
  • Proactive gives the option to see and resolve problems when the resources (people, money, etc.) are available
  • The cost of ergonomic changes is inversely related to the availability of funds.
slide45

Ergonomic issues into a Product Development Milestone

Concept Phase

J1

Final Program

Status

Lessons Learned

are identified &

fed forward for

Continuous Process

Improvement

Ergo Issues that

are Product related

Ergo Issues that

are Process related

Assigned to Product

Engineers for

Evaluation & Resolution

Assigned to Process

Engineers/Product

Specialists for

Evaluation & Resolution

Current

Production Jobs

in Plant with

Similar Product

Ergonomics

Team Assigned

to Complete

Reviews

Job Improvement

Cycle

key principles of dfe46
Key Principles of DFE
  • The chart shows the DFE roll into Product Development milestone considering similar products or processes.
  • Ergonomic issues can be fixed when the cost of such fixes is relatively low.
  • DFE gives the option to apply ergonomics principles into the PD planning process.
dfe rules for lean
DFE Rules for LEAN

The change to Lean is a very good opportunity to improve ergonomics.

The next twelve rules together with a team work, are important to improve process ergonomics:

  • Avoid bending forward at the waist
  • Keep the work close to your body
  • Avoid twisting your trunk
  • Avoid lifting or working above shoulder height.
  • The work height depends on the task and the operator.
dfe rules for lean cont d
DFE Rules for LEAN (cont’d)

6. Keep the duration of muscle effort short

7. Minimize walking distances.

8. Lift or lower only loads less than 40 pounds.

9. Bend the tool not the worker.

10. Maintain your tools and equipment.

11. Keep work in front of worker

12. Changes Postures and motions.

examples
EXAMPLES
  • Introduction to DFE
  • DFE Process
  • Key Principles of DFE
  • Examples
  • DFE Software
  • DFE Hardware
  • DFE Case Studies
  • References
  • Supplemental Readings
good examples
GOOD EXAMPLES

Good ergonomic designs

good examples51
GOOD EXAMPLES

Computer Hardware Design Example:

The KEYBOARD

The keyboard on the left is the “standard” computer keyboard.

The keyboard on the right is called a “left handed keyboard”, which has the numeric keypad on the left hand side.

good examples52
GOOD EXAMPLES

Split Keyboards:

Product on the left has an integrated mouse feature.

Product on the right has an integrated wrist rest.

good examples53
GOOD EXAMPLES

Adjustment for wrist splay in the horizontal plan: 0°-30°, continuously variable. Adjustment for wrist pronation - vertical tenting 0°-30°, continuously variable. Keyboard on left has larger space bars, while keyboard on the right still incorporates the wrist rests.

good examples54
GOOD EXAMPLES

Larger keys for individual with limited hand mobility or individuals with large hands. Keys put in alphabetic order for children.

Keyboard on the right integrates the use of a trackball.

good examples55
GOOD EXAMPLES

Optimal split-your arms go out straight in front of you. Lateral tilt so thumbs are effectively elevated. Built-in, padded palm supports.

good examples56
GOOD EXAMPLES

Reduce wrist stresses associated with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Move mouse clicks to your feet. Macros up to 13 keystrokes.

good examples57
GOOD EXAMPLES

Computer Hardware Design Example Continued:

The MOUSE

Various sizes for right and left hand users.

Thumb button for double clicking and scrolling without moving the mouse.

good examples58
GOOD EXAMPLES

Designed as a pilot stick, it encourages a natural, vertical hand position with the thumb pointing upwards.

A full 1.5 inches of length adjustment and low lateral profile and a raised palm rest.

good examples59
GOOD EXAMPLES

Is the trackball for user preference or another attempt to redesign a bad problem?

good examples60
GOOD EXAMPLES

Computer Hardware Design Example:

The KEYBOARD and MOUSE “FIXERS”

Wrist rests for the keyboard and mouse.

good examples61
GOOD EXAMPLES

Reduce wrist stresses associated with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. If the keyboard and mouse were designed correctly in the first place, would you need to correct them?

bad examples
BAD EXAMPLES

Examples of where Ergonomics was not applied

bad examples63
BAD EXAMPLES

There are two problems with these doors.

Handles are designed for pulling rather pushing.

The two sets of doors work in opposite ways.

“Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com”

bad examples64
BAD EXAMPLES

Commonly used handle types for this style of door.

The problem is you don’t know which end of the handle to push.

“Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com”

bad examples65
BAD EXAMPLES

“Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com”

Manufacturers package both the shampoo and conditioner in nearly identical bottles. Should be able to easy separate the two without too much difficulty.

bad examples66
BAD EXAMPLES

“Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com”

Other than the letter difference in these labels, these two bottles of Insulin types. This could be serious if one selects the wrong type.

bad examples67
BAD EXAMPLES

“Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com”

“Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com”

The problem is that the handle to move the cabinet is very close to the top drawer and is more obvious than the actual drawer handle.

bad examples68
BAD EXAMPLES

Which light would choose ?

“Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com”

There are so many traffic lights at this intersection, one would have to wonder how many people get confused when they arrive at this intersection.

bad examples69
BAD EXAMPLES

“Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com”

The outlet here is just below the mirror over a sink. You cannot plug it as shown as it hits the mirror, and you cannot flip it up-side-down because the prongs do not match up.

bad examples70
BAD EXAMPLES

“Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com”

These cupholders block access to the radio and cassette player. Not only hard to use the radio, but increase the risk of spilling something into the cassette player.

bad examples71
BAD EXAMPLES

“Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com”

Two very common mechanical pencils. The problem with the top one is that you would constantly be taking off the cap and when you use the eraser you would keep advancing the lead. The bottom one has a simple button to advance the lead.

bad examples72
BAD EXAMPLES

Frustrated with VCR cases ?

“Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com”

It is suppose to be easy when you return the VCR tape back to the holder. Very common mistake people make when returning the tape to the case is that there is only one way to put it back into the case.

bad examples73
BAD EXAMPLES

“OUTCH ………watch out for that bar”

How many times have you been in this situation ? Most turn styles like this one do not take in consideration the various heights of individuals.

“Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com”

bad examples74
BAD EXAMPLES

IS IT 40 MPH OR 40 RPM ?

“Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com”

This poorly designed instrument cluster has the speedometer and the tachometer using the same scaling. The only item helping in choosing between the two is the odometer.

bad examples75
BAD EXAMPLES

“Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com”

“Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com”

The older stove top controls on the left are more difficult to determine which one controls each of the four burners, while the newer style on the right matches the pattern of the burners.

bad examples76
BAD EXAMPLES

“Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com”

People generally expect the controls to be close to the device. Here the CD buttons are close to the tape player and the tape player controls are close to the CD player.

bad examples77
BAD EXAMPLES

TRUNK

FUEL

“Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com”

Separating these controls would make inadvertent opening of the trunk less likely. The greater the separation, the less likely it would be to accidentally open the trunk lid when opening the fuel door.

bad examples78
BAD EXAMPLES

“Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com”

Which button should I push ? There are so many different labels and displays on these pumps, it makes it very difficult to find the start button.

bad examples79
BAD EXAMPLES

The first required action to use this Glue Stick product is the ‘removal’ of the cap. The cap in this case is the small dark end, typically leading consumers to try to remove the large white feed-end first. Solution: label, resize.

bad examples80
BAD EXAMPLES

The two vertical controls are difficult to differentiate due to location, lighting, and texture. Being the primary switch for the vehicle dome light, the left control could be more accessible. Solution: relocate or change texture.

bad examples81
BAD EXAMPLES

The left control makes excellent use of color to identify temperature-mix. The right control makes no use of color, perpetuating waste by inadvertent use of the vehicle AC compressor. Solution: add color indicators.

bad examples82
BAD EXAMPLES

The solid arrow on the left indicates the direction to push to engage the windshield washer pump, but so do the hollow double arrows on the right. Solution: reposition hollows arrows.

bad examples83
BAD EXAMPLES

“Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com”

“Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com”

Two different wiper controls made by the same manufacturer, the only problem is that they are not consistent in their operation.

bad examples84
BAD EXAMPLES

Traditionally, rearview mirror levers give no indication of which position is ‘normal’ and which is for ‘filtered’ viewing. Have you ever experienced this anomaly? Solution: add symbols, different mechanism.

bad examples85
BAD EXAMPLES

As can be seen from these examples, gas cap location may differ from vehicle to vehicle, sometimes even within the same manufacturer.

bad examples86
BAD EXAMPLES

“Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com”

This gas cap door is hard to determine which end you would select to open the door. Good designs would have a lip on the door to grab onto.

bad examples87
BAD EXAMPLES

A real life example of bad visual effects which we have all seen and most of us are guilty of. If it doesn’t convey the message, is it worth putting in?

bad examples88
BAD EXAMPLES

Everyone is E237 has had initial difficulties in determining which switch controls the projector screen, and just which lights the other switches control. Solution: label or reposition.

bad examples89
BAD EXAMPLES

This steering wheel exhibits good and bad ergonomic design. The cruise controls are lighted, well textured, and easily defined. The horn button is unlit, not easily defined, yet is more likely needed during an emergency.

bad examples90
BAD EXAMPLES

While a display may be artistically balanced, this is not a guarantee of good ergonomic design. Note the same degree of smudge on the green label as on the yellow switch. Solution: combine, reposition, change colors.

good vs bad examples
GOOD vs. BAD EXAMPLES

Good and bad ergonomic designs

slide92

GOOD vs. BAD EXAMPLES

This is a bad application of ergonomics because lifting put a strain on the back of the user

This is a good application of ergonomics because it puts less strain on the back of the user

slide93

GOOD vs. BAD EXAMPLES

This is a bad application of ergonomics because in order to operate this device the User need to apply pressure downward on the handle in order to raise the vehicle placing strain on the upper arm and shoulder as well as the back

This is a good application of ergonomics because you rotate the handle placing less strain on the arm and back muscles.

slide94

GOOD vs. BAD EXAMPLES

This is a bad application of ergonomics because in order to make juice you must apply a twisting pressure on the orange that places a strain on the wrist

This is a good application of ergonomics because you simply utilize downward pressure that doesn’t place a severe strain as the other juicer

slide95

GOOD vs. BAD EXAMPLES

This is a bad application of ergonomics because pulling on a line through a pulley places strain on the upper arms and back

This is a good application of ergonomics because you are basically winding the sail up by means of a winch ratchet arrangement which places less strain on the upper body

good vs bad examples96
GOOD vs. BAD EXAMPLES

This weed puller shows a good application of ergonomics because it doesn't place any undue strain on the user's body.

good vs bad examples97
GOOD vs. BAD EXAMPLES

This weed puller is an example of bad application of ergonomics, because it places a strain on the upper legs and lower back of the user.

design for ergonomics98
Design for Ergonomics
  • Introduction to DFE
  • DFE Process
  • Key Principles of DFE
  • Examples
  • DFE Software
  • DFE Hardware
  • DFE Case Studies
  • References
design for ergonomics99
Design for Ergonomics

DFE Software

  • ErgoManagerTM (human perf. & analysis)
  • JACKTM(human modeling & simulation)
  • SAFEWORK® (virtual human modeling)
  • PeopleSize (anthropometry software)
what is ergomanager

ErgoManager™

ErgoManager™ is a suite of software solutions for use within an office environment:

  • ErgoSURE™ - assesses postural risk.
  • ErgoSentry™ - a customizable work pacing and reinforcement tool for individual workflow management and employee training.
  • Surveyor™ - collects data for reporting on user and company-wide ergonomic tendencies.

What is ErgoManager™?

slide101

Training

Tool

Stretching,

Exercise and

Training

Plug-ins

Symptom

Survey

History of

System Data

Training

Reinforcement

Tool

Management

Reporting and

Analysis Tool

ErgoManager™

Ergonomic Management Tools

Keyboarding and

Mousing Activity

Monitoring and

Break Tool

Postural

Assessment Tool

Electronic Data

Collection

(The 3 main modules and 6 sub-modules that make up the ErgoManager software product).

why use ergomanager

ErgoManager™

Why use ErgoManager™?

  • Improve Office Productivity
  • Improve Worker Efficiency
  • Improve Worker Comfort, and …

ErgoSURE™

ErgoSentry™ErgoAnalyzer, UserNotes, Computer-based Training, Guardian & More

Surveyor™

“How To Do” Manuals

why use ergomanager cont

ErgoManager™

Why use ErgoManager™ ?(cont.)

  • Interactive Educational Training Tool
  • Customizable
  • Quick & easy to use
  • Simple Web-like interfaces (ergonomic)

(An example of typical web-like hypertext is shown).

ergosure

ErgoManager™

ErgoSURE

  • Just Point and Click!

(ErgoSURE allows easy quantification of employees’ work posture).

ergosure105

ErgoManager™

ErgoSURE

  • Analyze injury potential
  • Consistent
  • Quick & easy to use

(ErgoSURE covers complete upper-body evaluation).

ergosure106

ErgoManager™

ErgoSURE

  • Systematically assess posture
  • Record how an employee is working

(Allows easy logging of performance data…).

slide107

ErgoManager™

ErgoSURE

Reporting and analysis from ErgoSure

RULA

Rapid

Upper

Limb

Assessment

Scoring:

Best = Low Score

Worst = High Score

(And allows individual and group statistical tracking and display).

ergosentry

ErgoManager™

ErgoSentry
  • Computer-based Training
  • Workpacing Education
  • Ergonomic Monitoring
  • Simple Visual Indicator

(ErgoSentry green bar charts are used to display higher-stress timeframes).

ergosentry ergomap

ErgoManager™

ErgoSentry -ErgoMap

  • Interactive Training Tool
  • Customizable
  • Quick & easy to use

(An example of a click-on Ergo Map used to educate workers on ergonomic ramifications).

surveyor

ErgoManager™

Surveyor

  • Gather important information from employees
  • Electronic and networked
  • Fully Customizable
  • Quick & easy to use

(One example of many surveys and quizzes used to develop performance and trend metrics from).

slide111

ErgoManager™

Surveyor

  • Measure ANY influence on productivity

(Metric reporting capabilities on an individual, group, and division basis are possible).

slide112

ErgoManager™

Surveyor

  • Measure ANY influence on productivity

(Data compilation and transmittal can be transmitted to the home base for final evaluation).

slide113

ErgoManager™

ErgoManagerTM Summary – EM will improve office productivity, worker comfort, reduce risks, and achieve compliance.

Cornell University Study – EM improves user’s productivity 10% to 40%

Reduce risks of RSI’s and associated costs

Reduce employee turnover, provide increased sense of well-being and improved morale

Compliant with existing and future state and federal regulations

design for ergonomics114
Design for Ergonomics

DFE Software

  • Magnitude (human performance & analysis)
  • JACKTM (human modeling & simulation)
  • SAFEWORK® (virtual human modeling)
  • PeopleSize (anthropometry software)
slide115

JACKTM

Human Modeling & Simulation

JACKTM is an ergonomics and human factors product that helps enterprises improve the ergonomics of their product designs and workplace tasks by providing:

  • Biomechanically accurate Digital Humans
  • Placement of DH in your virtual environment
  • Task assignment to DH
  • Performance analysis of DH
slide116

JACKTM

Human Modeling & Simulation

(Shows blue range for left arm – spine back, red range for right arm – spine back & forward, and green range for the summation or virtual interior).

slide117

JACKTM

Human Modeling & Simulation

Why use Digital Humans? Because many enterprises are presently facing a barrage of similar problems:

  • Shorten design times
  • Reduce development costs
  • Improve quality
  • Increase productivity
  • Enhance safety
slide118

JACKTM

Human Modeling & Simulation

(DH shows realistic and complex joint and body interaction with a virtual product concept).

slide119

JACKTM

Human Modeling & Simulation

Digital Humans in product design allows you to gain insight about the customer.

  • Positioning and comfort
  • Visibility
  • Ingress & egress
  • Reaching and grasping
  • Foot pedal operation
  • Multi-person interaction
  • Strength assessment
slide120

JACKTM

Human Modeling & Simulation

This added customer insightallows you to realize these benefits during PD process:

  • Faster time to market
  • Higher product quality
  • Reduced development costs
  • Safer products
  • Improved productivity
slide121

JACKTM

Human Modeling & Simulation

The basic principles of JACKTM

  • Build a virtual environment
    • Real-time, CAD/CAE models
  • Create a digital human
    • 68 joints, 33 spine & hands, 135 DOF, NASA anthropomorphic studies
  • Define DH size and shape
    • SAE, frame, height, body segment extremes
  • Position DH in your virtual world
    • Posture, behavior, environmental relationship
  • Assign your DH tasks
    • Field of view, movement, size and component swapping
  • Analyze DH performance
    • View cones, reach, test fit, force, torque
slide122

JACKTM

Human Modeling & Simulation

(Shows 2 body size reach envelopes from 2 different seat positions, and relationship to virtual product concept).

slide123

JACKTM

Human Modeling & Simulation

Task Analysis Toolkit

  • Lower back force analysis
  • Strength analysis
  • Metabolic energy expenditure
  • Fatigue/recovery time analysis
  • Posture analysis
slide124

JACKTM

Human Modeling & Simulation

(Can measure and analyze lower-back stress from X-repetitions of virtual product ingress/egress cycles).

slide125

JACKTM

Human Modeling & Simulation

Occupant Packaging Toolkit

  • SAE packaging guidelines
  • Comfort assessment
  • Advanced reach analysis
  • Advanced anthropometry
  • Specialized part libraries
slide126

JACKTM

Human Modeling & Simulation

(Even sophisticated virtual product scenario’s can be coupled with complex DH interactions).

slide127

JACKTM

Human Modeling & Simulation

JACKTM Summary – digital human modeling software, supports and promotes:

Virtual concept evaluation

Earlier targeting of population segments

DH descriptor combinations

Interfaces with CAE & CAD work

Reduced PD cycle

Faster ‘ergonomic’ product to market

design for ergonomics128
Design for Ergonomics

DFE Software

  • Magnitude (human performance & analysis)
  • JACKTM (human modeling & simulation)
  • SAFEWORK® (virtual human modeling)
  • PeopleSize (anthropometry software)
slide129

The Human Modeling Software

for Advanced Ergonomic Design

slide130

GENICOM CONSULTANTS Inc.

Founded in 1984, Genicom Consultants Inc. is known as a center of competence in Human Modeling around the world as well as a development firm.

  • Genicom has basically two divisions:
  • R&D division in which they develop products such as SAFEWORK, the most complete human modeling software available commercially
  • Human factors consulting division in which they analyze, correct and design workstations.
slide131

SAFEWORK is a software tool which creates virtual humans of various percentiles to study fit and accessibility in a workstation. Features include:

    • Mannequins with 103 anthropometric variables
    • Numerous forms of analysis (postural,reach, etc.)
    • Simulate tasks by using animation
    • Transparent interfacing to most CAD systems
slide132

SOFTWARE BREAKDOWN

  • Anthropometry
  • Postural Analysis
  • Libraries Concepts
  • Vision
  • Animation
  • Collision Detection
slide140

Basic Scene

(Examples of human models used in the postural analysis module of the software)

slide141

Single Range of Motion

(Postural analysis of the human thigh area)

slide142

Coupled Range of Motion

(Postural analysis of the human thigh area and by adding movement to leg)

slide143

Postural score and limitation database

(Statistical data on the area in which the user is examining)

slide157

Summary of Why People Use SAFEWORK ?

  • User Friendly Environment
  • Full 3D Mannequin Representation
  • Access to Standard Population Statistics
  • Posture Analysis
  • Virtual Viewing
  • Animation Capabilities
design for ergonomics158
Design for Ergonomics

DFE Software

  • Magnitude (human performance & analysis)
  • JACKTM (human modeling & simulation)
  • SAFEWORK® (virtual human modeling)
  • PeopleSize (anthropometry software)
slide159
What is PeopleSize ?
  • PeopleSize is ….. a software package which gives data on human sizes through a virtual interface.
  • The main advantage of of the program is that you visualize the item you are designing in relation to the human body.
slide160
How does the process work?
  • Point and click three step process
  • Select the measurements you want by pointing and clicking on any triangle of the color illustrations of the human body
  • Visualize the item you are designing in relation to the human body
slide161

Step One

Select the nationality, age group, and percentile value.

Example:

UK male, 18-64, 1st percentile

slide162

Step Two

Click on the icon you desire to see the larger illustration.

Choose from full body views to individual body parts to even full body infant views.

Views available vary depending on population data.

slide163

Step Three

Click on the various triangles to select the dimension you want.

Each triangle is a measurement landmark.

Over 280+ dimensions to choose from.

slide164

Output Dialog

As you select each dimension, the output dialog gives you dimensions for the population you specified in Step One.

Automatic adjustments are added for clothing and sitting slump.

slide165

Examples:

Full body, front view seated position

Each arrow represents a critical measurement

slide166

Examples:

Full body, front view

Each arrow represents a critical measurement

slide167

Examples:

Head: front view

Each arrow represents a critical measurement

slide168

Examples:

Hand positions: various

Each arrow represents a critical measurement

slide169

Examples:

Hand: front view

Each arrow represents a critical measurement

slide170

Examples:

Full body, side view (infant)

Each arrow represents a critical measurement

slide171

Client List – companies using PeopleSize

- American Airlines - London Transport

- British Airways - Ministry of Defense

- British Rail Research - Motor Industry Research

- Ford Motor Company - Nissan Motor Group

- Hewlett Packard - Scandinavian Airlines

- Jaguar - Transport Research Labs

- Land Rover - Volvo BV

slide172

Summary of PeopleSize

  • Check current designs against different populations and user groups
  • Ensure new designs fit the desired percentages of the population
  • Look-up data to create or justify designing specifications
  • Saves time by having all the data in one package
  • See the effects of clothing on your users
design for ergonomics173
Design for Ergonomics
  • Introduction to DFE
  • DFE Process
  • Key Principles of DFE
  • Examples
  • DFE Software
  • DFE Hardware
  • DFE Case Studies
  • References
  • Supplemental Readings
dfe hardware
DFE Hardware
  • IETM (Interactive Electronic

Technical Manuals)

  • Third Age Suit - Design Center
  • Vehicle Bucks
  • NVH Partial-Mannequin
  • Anthropomorphic Mannequins
  • Articulating Mannequins
design for ergonomics175
Design for Ergonomics
  • Introduction to DFE
  • DFE Process
  • Key Principles of DFE
  • Examples
  • DFE Software
  • DFE Hardware
  • DFE Case Studies
  • References
  • Supplemental Readings
dfe case studies
DFE Case Studies

DFE Case Studies

  • IETM (Interactive Elect. Tech. Manuals)
  • Third Age Suit - Design Center
  • Jaguar X
  • OSHA Refrigerator Assembly
dfe case studies177
DFE Case Studies

DFE Case Studies

  • IETM
  • Third Age Suit - Design Center
  • Jaguar X
  • OSHA Refrigerator Assembly
dfe case studies178
DFE Case Studies

Why IETM? (Interactive Electronic Technical Manual)

  • Aircraft innovation rise
    • Demanding civilian, military, and FAA requirements
  • Aircraft maintenance plateau
    • Increased demands on mechanics
    • Unmanageable technical manual volumes
  • Greater risk potential
  • Need for Innovation in aircraft maintenance
dfe case studies179
DFE Case Studies

(Aircraft maintenance is a layered problem…)

dfe case studies180
DFE Case Studies

(… as well as a circular problem).

dfe case studies182

Operator

Machine

DFE Case Studies

Transitional Milestones

  • Hardware
    • Existing record & playback equipment
  • Software
    • User/media interaction - hypertext, hypermedia
  • Ergonomics (Key)
    • Technician OP / Device IP
    • Device OP / Technician IP
  • Customer
    • Tech, Civilian, Military, FAA

(As of 1998, filled stars indicate solutions, empty stars indicate areas still needing resolution).

dfe case studies183
DFE Case Studies

Ergonomics (Key)

  • Technician OP / Device IP
    • Speech recognition, joysticks, head-mounted gyro
dfe case studies184
DFE Case Studies

Ergonomics (Key)

  • Device OP / Technician IP, HDM’s

(Consumer PD finally delivered a translucent monocular which could meet OP/IP needs).

dfe case studies185
DFE Case Studies

Milestone Achievements

  • Hardware
    • Record & personal playback
  • Software
    • User/media interaction, hypertext, hypermedia
  • Ergonomics
    • IP / OP & IP / OP
  • Customer
    • Technician, Civilian & Military aviation, FAA

(Since 1998, ergonomics has delivered a complete solution, now under Customer review).

dfe case studies186
DFE Case Studies

IETM Summary – a quality ergonomic solution will more likely to result in:

  • Increased morale
  • Maintained quality level
  • Increased productivity
  • Improved safety
  • Improved competitive position
dfe case studies187
DFE Case Studies

DFE Case Studies

  • IETM
  • Third Age Suit - Design Center
  • Jaguar X
  • OSHA Refrigerator Assembly
dfe case studies188
DFE Case Studies

Why the Third Age Suit?

  • To gain insight into the physical capabilities of customers in the 3rd age demographic
  • To let young engineers and designers experience the effects of the aging process, by actually wearing the suit
  • To attempt to maintain our competitive position
dfe case studies189
DFE Case Studies

Third Age Suit - Design Center

(Show Video if Possible)

dfe case studies190
DFE Case Studies

Third Age Suit Summary

  • To proactively improve our overall design process by taking advantage of promising new tools and methodologies to stay competitive.
  • To more accurately consider the needs of the population in the 3rd age range.
  • Though not easy to properly fit to one’s individual body, the insight gained from the accelerated aging effect is extremely worthwhile.
dfe case studies191
DFE Case Studies

DFE Case Studies

  • IETM (Interactive Elect. Tech. Manuals)
  • Third Age Suit - Design Center
  • Jaguar X
  • OSHA Refrigerator Assembly
dfe case studies192
DFE Case Studies

Jaguar X-Type:

  • Recognized ergonomics would provide competitive advantage.
  • Provided owners with extensive seat & steering wheel adjustability.
  • Carefully positioned all control switches.
  • Even designed in switch feel & sound.
dfe case studies193
DFE Case Studies

Jaguar X-Type:

dfe case studies194
DFE Case Studies

DFE Case Studies

  • IETM (Interactive Elect. Tech. Manuals)
  • Third Age Suit - Design Center
  • Jaguar X
  • OSHA Refrigerator Assembly
dfe case studies195
DFE Case Studies

OSHA Recommendations for Assembly:

  • Use “slip resistant” gloves to avoid increasing grip force required for lifting.
  • Reach zones: > waist & < shoulder
  • Trigger Grips: >2 fingers distributes force
  • Use cushioned mats (anti-fatigue) to reduce lower back injuries.
  • Rotate people thru different operations, to avoid stressing one muscle group.
dfe case studies196
DFE Case Studies

OSHA Refrigerator Assembly:

design for ergonomics197
Design for Ergonomics
  • Introduction to DFE
  • DFE Procedures
  • Key Principles of DFE
  • Examples
  • DFE Software
  • DFE Hardware
  • DFE Case Studies
  • References
  • Supplemental Readings
references
References
  • Burgess, John H (1986). “Designing for Humans: The Human Factor in Engineering”, Petrocelli Books, Princeton, New Jersey.
  • Woodson, Wesley E. and Conover, Donald W. “Human Engineering Guide for Equipment Designers”, Second edition, University of California Press, Berkley,1964.
  • Chapanis, Alphonse (1965). “Man–Machine Engineering”, Wadsworth Publishing, London.
references199
References
  • Chapanis, Alphonse (1996). Human Factors in Systems Engineering, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY, USA
  • Kantowitz, Barry and Sorkin, Robert (1983). Human Factors, Understanding People-System; John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY, USA
  • McCormick, Ernest J (1970). Human Factors Engineering, McGraw-Hill Co., New York, NY, USA
references200
References
  • O’Brien, Thomas G. and Charlton, Samuel G. (1996). Handbook of Human Factors Testing and Evaluation; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, Mahwah, New Jersey, USA
  • Andreasen, Myrup/S. Kahler/T. Lund "Design for Assembly", Second edition, IFS Publications/Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heildelberg, New York, Tokio. 1988
references201
References
  • Woodson, Wesley E. and Conover, Donald W. “Human Engineering Guide for Equipment Designers”, Second edition, University of California Press, 1964
  • O’Reilly & Associates, Inc.; 2000 www.patientcenters.com/wheels/news/adaptive.html
  • SAE 2000-01-0169; Ergonomic Consideration in Steering Wheel Control
  • SAE 2000-01-2167; A Generic Process for Human Model Analysis
references202
References
  • SAE 1999-01-1913; Measuring of Human Anthropometry, Posture and Motion
  • SAE 2000-01-2156; Digital Humans and Electromagnetic Motion Capture
  • SAE 2000-01-2165; Application of the 3-D CAD Manikin RAMSIS to Heavy Duty Truck Design at Freightliner Corporation
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics, Wright State University, www.web2.cs.wright.edu
references203
References
  • NexGen Ergonomics, www.nexgenergo.com
  • Cornell University Ergonomics, www.ergo.human.cornell.edu
  • Human Factors International, www.humanfactors.com
  • “Darnell, M. J. Bad Human Factor Designs”, www.baddesigns.com
  • Open Ergonomics, PeopleSize 2000, www.openerg.com
  • SAFEWORK, www.safework.com
references204
References

Ford Adv. Engrg Design Dept., 1997, A Human Factors Design/Evaluation Manual

Galer, Ian A. (1987), Applied Ergonomics Handbook

University of Pennsylvania, Center for Modeling & Simulation, http://www.upenn.edu/computing/printout/archive/v12/4/jack.html

references205
References
  • University of Pennsylvania, JACK Home Page, http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~hms/jack.html
  • EAI, Engineering Animation Inc., http://www.transom.com/
  • Magnitude, Computer Ergonomic Software, http://www.magnitude.com/main/about.html
  • Human Factor Issues in Aircraft, http://members.aol.com/geo13/ietm.htm
references206
References
  • The Ergonomics Society http://www.ergonomics.org.uk
  • Ergonomics

http://www.ergonomics.org

  • Human Factors & Ergonomics Society http://www.hfes.org
  • OSHA (Success stories & case abstracts)

http://www.osha-slc.gov/SLTC/ergonomics/index.html

design for ergonomics207
Design for Ergonomics
  • Introduction to DFE
  • DFE Procedures
  • Key Principles of DFE
  • Examples
  • DFE Software
  • DFE Hardware
  • DFE Case Studies
  • References
  • Supplemental Readings
supplemental readings
Supplemental Readings

1996 Human Factors & Ergonomics Society’s 40th Annual Proceedings “Presidential Address”:

Good Ergonomics is Good Economics by Hal W. Hendrick:

Available @ www.hfes.org

supplemental readings209
Supplemental Readings

The Ergonomics Society’s overview of ergonomics, from their web homepage Available @www.ergonomics.org.uk

Additional articles identified by Cohort 2 students will be made available as further readings.