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Bell Ringer. Answer in your notebook A water molecule contains which of the following bonds? A. Ionic Bond B. Non-Polar Covalent Bond C. Polar Covalent Bond What is the difference between the three bonds?. Properties of Water. Covalent bonding.

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bell ringer
Bell Ringer
  • Answer in your notebook
  • A water molecule contains which of the following bonds?
    • A. Ionic Bond
    • B. Non-Polar Covalent Bond
    • C. Polar Covalent Bond
    • What is the difference between the three bonds?
slide2

Properties of Water

Covalent bonding

Polar covalent bond – unequal sharing of electrons

A great example of a molecule with polar covalent bonds is water. Why is water considered polar?

What is a partial positive and partial negative charge?

slide3

Properties of Water

Covalent bonding vs. Hydrogen bonding

Hydrogen Bond

Covalent Bond

slide4

Properties of Water

Universal Solvent

Water is the solvent of Life!

Solute– substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution

Solvent– fluid that dissolves solutes

Example: Ice Tea – water is the solvent and tea and sugar the solutes

slide5

Properties of Water

Cohesion, Adhesion and Surface Tension

cohesion = water attracted to other water

molecules because of polar properties

adhesion = water attracted to other materials

surface tension= water is pulled together creating

the smallest surface area possible

slide6

Properties of Water

Capillary Action

Because water has both adhesive and cohesive properties, capillary actionis present.

Capillary Action= water’s adhesive property is the cause of capillary action. Water is attracted to some other material and then through cohesion, other water molecules move too as a result of the original adhesion.

Ex: Think water in a straw

Ex: Water moves through trees this way

slide7

Properties of Water

In order to raise the temperature of water, the average molecular speed has to increase.

It takes much more energy to raise the temperature of water compared to other solvents because hydrogen bonds hold the water molecules together!

Water has a high heat capacity.

“The specific heat is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius.”

High Heat Capacity

slide8

Properties of Water

Density

Water is less dense as a solid! This is because the hydrogen bonds are stable in ice – each molecule of water is bound to four of its neighbors.

Solid – water molecules are bonded together – space between fixed

Liquid – water molecules are constantly bonding and rebonding – space is always changing

slide9

Properties of Water

So, can you name all of the properties of water?

Adhesion

Cohesion

Capillary action

High surface tension

Holds heat to regulate temperature (High heat capacity)

Less dense as a solid than a liquid

slide10

Acids and Bases

Strength compared using pH scale

Ranges from 0 – 14

Logarithmic Scale (gets 10x bigger/smaller)

Acid – donates H+ when added to aqueous solutions

Ranges from pH 0-6.9

Base – breaks up into hydroxide (OH-) ions and

another compound when placed in an aqueous

solution

Ranges from pH 7.1 – 14

Distilled water is pH 7.0 or neutral. Why?

H2O H+ + OH-

slide12

Acids and Bases

Buffers – compounds used to maintain a contant pH within a system

H2CO3 H+ + HCO3-

Carbonic acid bicarbonate ion