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The Muscular System. MUSCULAR SYSTEM. Types of Muscle Tissue: Skeletal, Smooth, and Cardiac Skeletal , aka “striated” voluntary – attached to bones and under conscious, willful control. Has the ability to contract (shorten) and thereby bring about movement. Cardiac Muscle.

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muscular system
  • Types of Muscle Tissue: Skeletal, Smooth, and Cardiac
  • Skeletal, aka “striated”
    • voluntary – attached to bones and under conscious, willful control.
    • Has the ability to contract (shorten) and thereby bring about movement
cardiac muscle
Cardiac Muscle
  • Found only in the heart
  • Striated
  • Involuntary
  • Cells connected by intercalated disks
smooth muscle
Smooth Muscle
  • Not striated
  • Involuntary
  • Walls of hollow organs such as:
    • Stomach, urinary bladder, respiratory passages
  • Arranged in sheets/layers
muscle functions
Muscle Functions
  • Producing Movement
  • Maintaining Posture
  • Stabilizing Joints
  • Generating Heat
    • Maintaining body temperature
muscle and muscle fiber structure
Muscle and Muscle Fiber Structure:
  • A muscle is composed of many muscle fibers (muscle fiber = muscle cell).
  • The individual muscles are separated from each other and held in place by a covering called the FASCIA.
  • This fascia also forms TENDONS connecting muscles to bones.
The muscle fiber membrane is called the SARCOLEMMA and the cytoplasm is called the SARCOPLASM.
  • Within the sarcoplasm are many parallel fibers known as MYOFIBRILS.
Each myofibril is made of many protein filaments called MYOFILAMENTS. There are two types:
    • MYOSIN – thick filaments
    • ACTIN – thin filaments
Actin and Myosin filaments are arranged in an overlapping pattern of light (“I” bands) and dark (“A” bands).
  • In the middle of each “I” band is a line called a “Z” line.
  • The section of a myofibril from one Z-line to the next Z-line is called a SARCOMERE.
  • The arrangement of these sarcomeres next to each other produces the STRIATIONS of the skeletal muscle fibers.
how do muscles contract
How do muscles contract?
  • Stimulated by nerve impulses to contract
  • Sliding Filament Theory
    • Muscle cell becomes excited – action potential
    • Flood of calcium
    • Myosin heads bind to thin filaments
    • Form “cross bridges”
    • Heads bend and pull thin filaments together
    • Muscle shortens – contracting!
    • Video animation of muscle contraction