The Geography of Africa
Atlas Mts. Mountains & Peaks ΔMt. Kenya ΔMt. Kilimanjaro Ruwenzori Mts. Drajensburg Mts.
Mediterranean Sea Bodies Of Water Red Sea NileRiver NigerRiver L. Chad--> <--Gulf of Aden L. Albert--> Congo River L. Victoria L. Tanganyika-> Indian Ocean Atlantic Ocean Zambezi River LimpopoRiver OrangeRiver Pacific Ocean
Africa Empires of west Africa Physical Features
The Empire of Ghana, pg. 130 • Ghana was an empire • There was an important city named Koubmi Saleh that was a major trading post • People would come here to trade goods • To rest, sleep, eat • Make money by selling goods • Get goods to go back and sell to others • GOLD AND SALT WERE THE MOST VALUABLE RESOURCES
Salt was just as valuable as gold because it was used to flavor, spice and preserve food, especially meat
Ghana’s leaders taxed traders passing • through the Kingdom on the Niger • and Senegal Rivers • 1. people wanted gold for its beauty • and salt for their diets
The Niger River Basin • Covers 7.5% of the continent. • Extends over 10 countries. • 2,600 miles long.
Libyan Desert Deserts Sahara Desert Sahel Namib Desert Kalahari Desert
Valleys & Plains Great Rift Valley
Ghana controls trade • A. Gold to the south and salt from the • Sahara made it rich by 800AD.
Ghana Builds an Empire, pgs. 133-135 • By 800, Ghana was in control 1. trade routes • of West Africa’s _________ • Taxes and Gold • Ghana’s rulers looked for ways 2. money • to make _____ from the traders • passing through Ghana • 3. Rulers expected traders to • pay tax on goods they carried 3. in & out
Ghana’s Resources • The Niger River (pg. 131) a) water (people, animals, crops) b) trade a long the river (down stream) c) gold d) salt e) ivory f) gold g) copper h) slaves i) food
4. Name 4 sources that contributed to 4. a. goods-in Ghana’s wealth b. goods-out c. tax tribes d. gold Expansion of the Empire, pg. 134 5. Ghana’s kings used their wealth to build a powerful _________ 5. army 6. The empire of Ghana reached its 6.Tunka peak under king Manin
Ghana’s Decline, pg. 134 • 7. collapsed 7. By 1200, Ghana ____________ • 8. 8. Three factors why Ghana collapsed • invasion a. Muslims attacked them and • converted the people to Islam • b. overgrazing b. animals ate too much grass which • exposed the soil to open winds • that blew away the fertile soil • leaving behind worthless soil for • growing crops • c. internal c. the people who were conquered • rebellion by Ghana rose up and rebelled • taking over the entire empire
II.Ghana defeated A. In 1074, Almoravids capture Koumbi Saleh and destroy trade
The Empire of Mali Cornell Notes Copy this info. at the top of the page Section 2 Pages 136-141
Sundiata begins an empire 1. fought to gain Mali’s independence 2. beans, cotton, rice were introduced to the empire 3. Mali took over gold, salt trade 4. unlike later leaders he was not Muslim
Empire of Mali (1235-1464) A. Like Ghana, its location on the fertile upper Niger River made food plentiful
The Empire of Mali: pgs. 136-141; HSS 7.4.3 Sundiata Makes Mali an Empire, pg. 136 • Mali is located along the upper 1. Niger River • 2. This location has fertile 2. soil • 3. It’s location allowed the people • to control ________ on the river 3. trade • 4. Mali’s rise to power came under • the ruler named 4. Sundiata
The Empire of Mali: pgs. 136-141; HSS 7.4.3 Beginnings of the Empire, pg. 136 5. Sundiata was the son of a previous 6. He conquered nearby kingdoms including 6. Ghana according to legend 5. king Improvements in Mali, pg. 137 7. List the items that were grown and 7. traded items/crops a. gold b. salt c. beans d. onions e. rice f. cotton
Consolidation of Power, pg. 137 • 8. kingdom 8. Under Sundiata, Mali grew into a prosperous… • 9. Sunidiata wanted to be the main leader, so • he took power away from local leaders • 10 mansa 10. the local leaders gave him the title _______ • 11. 11. Mansas had both _________ and _______ • a. political authority • b. religious
Consolidation of Power, pg. 138 12. Muslim 12. After Sundiata died, the next rulers were ______________ . The Fall of Mali, pg. l40 13. leaders 13. Mali’s success depended on its strong ____ 14. weak 14. Mali fell because there were _____ leaders 15. size 15. One reason why Mali fell was because of its… 16. large 16. The empire became so ____, the gov. could not control it. 17. nomads 17. ______ from the Sahara seized Timbuktu Mansa Musa will be discussed tomorrow.
Acrostic Student Brainstorm: think of the main events that we have studied in ch. 5. Created an acrostic about the empire of Ghana. Use each letter to represent in the name Ghana to help you remember something important that we have studied.
Objectives: Use your textbook or class notes for ideas Work with a partner Make sure your words relate to what we have studied Use educational thoughts and ideas (no slang or irrelevant ideas) Ghana
Directions • Write the word in your spiral notebook G H A N A 2. Brainstorm and think of all of the main ideas that we have studied in Ch. 6, section 1 pgs. 130-135. 3. Use each letter to represent a main idea or a fact that you have learned. 4. Please think about the most important ideas 5. Do not use slang words, keep this assignment educational. 6. Draw 2-3 pictures along the perimeter to represent these ideas
oldtraded for salt G h a n a anddelivered saltby camelcaravan B rter= exchangegoods iger RiverandTimbuktu(cultureandlearning center) S S haraDesert
Ch. 5 Acrostic Assignment
Great Rift Valley 3,000 miles long
Tropic of Cancer 20° N Africa:The“Tropical”Continent Equator 0° Tropic of Capricorn20° S
Chapter 6 Section 1 pgs. 133-135
Mansa Musa’s Famous Pilgrimage Cross-Curricular Reading and Writing Assignment
Ch. 6, Section 1 Review please copy the question and write out the answer • Ghana is located in a. northeastern Africa b. northwestern Africa c. the middle of Africa 2. Which valuable items were just as valuable as the other a. gold b. salt c. copper choose 2 answers
3. Define silent barter- 4. List 4 sources that contributed to Ghana’s wealth a. c. b. d.
5. Give 3 reasons why Ghana collapsed a. b. c. 6. Define overgrazing
Mansa Musa 1. Pg. 139 Timbuktu (important trading city at the height of Mali’s power under the ruler, Mansa Musa. 2. Mansa means he had political and religious power. He Ruled over the region named Mali for over 25 years 3. Most famous Muslim king who was powerful, successful, wealthy and very generous. 4. Who was the son of the powerful king named Sundiata 5. Helped Islam spread throughout western Africa 6. He build mosques, emphasized education, Arabic ( “read the Qur’an”)
Mansa Musa’s Famous Pilgrimage • Preview the writing prompt before we read • “ Mansa Musa’s hajj was one of the grandest grand tours ever recorded. The spectacular wealth displayed by his entourage so dazzled the people on his line of march that their descendants still talked about it one hundred years after it occurred.”
Feel free to use these facts on theMansa Musa’s Famous Pilgrimage • Mansa Musa’s journey included lots of money, 80-100 camel-loads of gold dust, each load weighing about 300 pounds, 60,000 men including family members, servants, doctors teachers and his closest friends. • Include at least 1 additional fact to go along with this same idea.
Slide 2 Title=Sundiata 1. Who was Sundiata? He was one of the first leaders of Mali. 2. Why was he important? He build a huge army and helped improved agriculture. 3. Add an addition 1-2 facts about him 4. Add a picture of him 5. Or add a picture of the Empire of Mali
Slide # 3 Title =Mansa Musa • Who was Mansa Musa? In 1307, Mansa Musa became the leader of Mali. 2. Why was he important? He ruled the empire of Mali for twenty-five years. He extended the boundaries of the empire, he encouraged many to become Muslim and he encouraged the spread of learning because he loved the arts, architecture, literature, etc. 3. Add a picture of him
Slide # 4 Title =Mansa Musa’s Empire • Mansa Musa captured Timbuktu, Gao, and Djenne, three very important cities. 2. Tell why these cities are important. Give at least 3 reasons. 3. Add a picture or a map of one of these three cities or a map that shows all three
Slide #5 Title =Mansa Musa’s Famous Pilgrimage 1. A hajj and pilgrimage mean they mean the same thing. 2. Mansa Musa was on his way to Make a pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia. 3. Where was Mansa Musa’s first stop? To what city and country? He stopped at Cairo, Egypt in 1324. 4. Include one additional fact to go along with this idea.