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Hallucinogens. by MacKenzie Donnelly, Lisa Martino, and Evan Hughes. Hallucinogens. Substances whose primary effect is to cause perceptual and cognitive distortions without producing a state of toxic delirium Most are synthesized by plants or have plant derived compounds

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by MacKenzie Donnelly, Lisa Martino, and Evan Hughes

  • Substances whose primary effect is to cause perceptual and cognitive distortions without producing a state of toxic delirium
    • Most are synthesized by plants or have plant derived compounds
  • Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, psilcybin, dimethyltryptamine (DMT), and 5-methoxy-dimethyl-tryptamine (5-MeO-DMT)
  • These drugs are called psychedelic by recreational users
  • found the crown of the peyote cactus
    • mescal button or peyote button
      • administered per os, chewed or cooked
    • The powder can also be extracted
  • found in Southwest United States and northern Mexico
    • used for religious reasons by Native Americans
  • mainstreamed in 1953
  • not readily available because of high costs and lack of want
  • psilocybin is the main compound found in hallucinogec mushrooms
    • adminstered mainly per os
  • psilocybin is converted to psilocin after ingested
  • use of psilocybin goes back to 3500 B.C.
dmt and 5 meo dmt
DMT and 5-MeO-DMT
  • both are found in plants in South America
    • ayahuasca
      • drink with two different hallucinogenic plants in it
    • sold in powder form nad smoked
    • taken orally
the discovery of lsd
The Discovery of LSD
  • First synthesized in 1938 by Albert Hofmann in Switzerland.
  • Extracted from ergot
    • Alkaloid
    • Produced by the fungus Claviceps purpurea
  • Effects of ergot
    • The toxicity causes ergotism; common in the Middle Ages and caused the deaths of 40,000 people in 944AD.
    • Produces contractions of the uterus.
discovery of lsd cont
Discovery of LSD cont.
  • Hofmann took lysergic acid from ergot alkaloids and combined it with other compounds.
    • 25th synthesized substance was d-lysergic acid diethylamide
      • LSD-25
  • LSD-25
    • Initially thought to be an analeptic.
    • Upon reexamining the drug Hofmann underwent the world's first known LSD trip.
      • Restlessness, dizziness, extremely stimulated imagination, dream-like state.
discovery of lsd cont1
Discovery of LSD cont.
  • Hofmann later injested a small amount of synthesized LSD
    • Even more severe symptoms than the first time.
  • Sandoz Pharmaceutical Company
    • Marketed LSD in 1947 as Delysid
      • Helped neurotic patients uncover repressed thoughts/feelings.
  • PerOs
  • Large amounts of the drug are dissolved in water
    • Droplets of this water are applied to a blotter
    • Blotters are divided into squares
uses of lsd
Uses of LSD
  • Psycholytic Therapy
    • Patient underwent drug induced psycholysis.
    • LSD first administered at low doses then dose is increased to promote the release of repressed memories and feelings.
  • Psychedelic Therapy
    • Patient given one high dose of LSD
    • Promoted insight into patient's problems via a drug-induced spiritual experience.
  • Psychological Weapon
    • United States CIA ULTA
      • Studied LSD as a mind control agent.
uses of lsd cont
Uses of LSD cont.
  • Recreational use
    • Hallucinations
    • Altered Sensory Perception
      • Synesthesia: combination/blending of senses
        • See smells, hear colors, etc.
  • Adverse Effects
    • Tremors
    • Increased Heart Rate/Blood Pressure
    • Neusea
    • Sweating
    • Dry Mouth
    • Numbness
restrictions to lsd
Restrictions to LSD
  • 1965: Federal Law restricted research on LSD
    • Sandoz stopped distributing LSD for research purposes.
  • 1967: LSD Banned Nationwide
  • Now
    • Research has started back up
      • MAPS (Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies) promotes research on potential psychotherapeutic applications of hallucinogens.
psychopharmacology of hallucinogens
Psychopharmacology of Hallucinogens

(insert table 14.1 on page 352)

  • Depending on dose LSD and Mescaline effects begin within 30-90 minutes, and last between 6-12 hours, were as psilocybin dissipates sooner.
  • DMT effects within seconds, and only lasts for an hour. Peaks between 5-20 minutes.
lsd responses
LSD Responses
  • "Trips" (state of intoxication) has 4 main parts
    • Onset: begins 30 minutes after taking drug. Colors intensify, patterns occur when eyes closed
    • Plateau: next 2 hours, time slows, more intense sensations
    • Peak:lasts for 2-3 hours. In another world with no time. Images appear; either good or bad trip.
    • Come-Down: 2-3 hours, user comes out of the hallucinogenic state, though it may take a day to feel normal.
structure of hallucinogenic drugs
Structure of Hallucinogenic Drugs
  • These drugs either have a serotonin-like, (indoleamine) or catecholamine-like structure.
  • Indoleamines
    • LSD, psilocybin, psilocin, DMT, 5-MeO-DMT
  • Similar to Serotonin structures
  • Catecholamines
    • Mescaline
    • Similar to NE, and amphetamine
lsd receptor sites
LSD receptor sites
  • LSD antagonizes the action of Serotonin however they are 5-HT(subscripted 2)
  • LSD binds to 8 different receptor subtypes, but only 5-HT(subscript 2A, and 2C) are the key receptor site for hallucinogens.
  • No other NT is used to cause the hallucinations
  • Complete tolerance can occur in 4 days, however there is an unknown complex system to gain this tolerance