Hallucinogens. Hallucinogens. • Hallucinogens are substances that alter sensory processing in the brain, causing perceptual disturbances, changes in thought processing, and depersonalization . Modern Day History of Hallucinogens. Vietnam War Timothy Leary Harvard professor
• Hallucinogens are substances that alter sensory processing in the brain,
causing perceptual disturbances,
changes in thought processing, and depersonalization
• Many drugs can exert hallucinogenic effects related to neurotransmitters:
Albert Hofmann and LSD model
• About half of the substance is cleared from the body within 3 hours, and more than 90% is excreted within 24 hours.
• Psilocybin—its principal source is the Psilocybe mexicana mushroom.
Religious use continues in Oaxaca, Mexico
- Mescaline is the most active drug in peyote cactus; it induces intensified perception of colors and euphoria
Stewart OC. Peyote Religion. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.
Aberle DF. The Peyote Religion Among the Navaho. Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing Co., 1966.
The most common psychostimulants (cocaine, MDMA and amphetamine) act on the synapse to increase the activity of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin.
Cocaine blocks pre-synaptic reuptake
Percentages of Past Year Hallucinogen Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: 2004 and 2005
2005 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poisoning and Exposure Database. Clinical Toxicology, 44:803-932, 2006