Unit 1: Three Worlds Collide Learning Targets 1 - 18
What’s In Your Wallet? • Purpose: Activity to explore the difference between primary and secondary sources. • Have students exchange item with another and study it for what it may offer as historical evidence; • Questions to consider: • What type of document/artifact is it? • Can it be dated? • What is most interesting about it? • What does its existence suggest about its owner? • What does it suggest about American society? • What doesn’t it convey of its owner/time period?
1. I can explain the importance of examining multiple primaryand secondary sources to gain an accurate representation of history. Primary Sources Secondary Sources • A primary source is a document or physical object which was written or created during the time under study. These sources were present during an experience or time period and offer an inside view of a particular event. • A secondary source interprets and analyzes primary sources. These sources are one or more steps removed from the event. Secondary sources may have pictures, quotes or graphics of primary sources in them.
1. I can explain the importance of examining multiple primaryand secondary sources to gain an accurate representation of history. Primary Sources Secondary Sources • Some types of primary sources include: • ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS (excerpts or translations acceptable): Diaries, speeches, manuscripts, letters, interviews, news film footage, autobiographies, official records • CREATIVE WORKS: Poetry, drama, novels, music, art • RELICS OR ARTIFACTS: Pottery, furniture, clothing, buildings • Some types of secondary sources include: • PUBLICATIONS: Textbooks, magazine articles, histories, criticisms, commentaries, encyclopedias
1. I can explain the importance of examining multiple primaryand secondary sources to gain an accurate representation of history. Primary Sources Secondary Sources • Examples of primary sources include: • Diary of Anne Frank - Experiences of a Jewish family during WWII • The Constitution of Canada - Canadian History • A journal article reporting NEW research or findings • Weavings and pottery - Native American history • Plato's Republic - Women in Ancient Greece • Examples of secondary sources include: • A journal/magazine article which interprets or reviews previous findings • A history textbook • A book about the effects of WWI
1. I can explain the importance of examining multiple primaryand secondary sources to gain an accurate representation of history. Primary Sources Secondary Sources
CAQ • What if history/only historical documentation was fed to you by the winner? • Example: textbooks about US History written by US citizens
2. I can identify the motives of Columbus and his crew. • “As soon as I arrived in the Indies, on the first Island which I found, I took some of the natives by force in order that they might learn and might give me information of whatever there is in these parts.” • Columbus’ Log • “Hispaniola is a miracle. Mountains and hills, plains and pastures, are both fertile and beautiful ... the harbors are unbelievably good and there are many wide rivers of which the majority contain gold. . . . There are many spices, and great mines of gold and other metals....” • Columbus’ Log • “The Indians, Columbus reported, "are so naive and so free with their possessions that no one who has not witnessed them would believe it. When you ask for something they have, they never say no. To the contrary, they offer to share with anyone...." He concluded his report by asking for a little help from their Majesties, and in return he would bring them from his next voyage "as much gold as they need ... and as many slaves as they ask." He was full of religious talk: "Thus the eternal God, our Lord, gives victory to those who follow His way over apparent impossibilities.“ • Zinn • "Let us in the name of the Holy Trinity go on sending all the slaves that can be sold.“ • Columbus’ Log
2. I can identify the motives of Columbus and his crew. • The “3 G’s” • Gold • God • Glory
2. I can identify the motives of Columbus and his crew. • “They ... brought us parrots and balls of cotton and spears and many other things, which they exchanged for the glass beads and hawks' bells. They willingly traded everything they owned... . They were well-built, with good bodies and handsome features.... They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance. They have no iron. Their spears are made of cane... . They would make fine servants.... With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want.” • Columbus’ Log
2. I can identify the motives of Columbus and his crew. • Which of these do you believe was most important to Columbus and his crew? Gold God Glory
3. I can describe the treatment of Native Americans by the Spaniards. • “On Haiti, they found that the sailors left behind at Fort Navidad had been killed in a battle with the Indians, after they had roamed the island in gangs looking for gold, taking women and children as slaves for sex and labor.” • Zinn • “Now, from his base on Haiti, Columbus sent expedition after expedition into the interior. They found no gold fields, but had to fill up the ships returning to Spain with some kind of dividend. In the year 1495, they went on a great slave raid, rounded up fifteen hundred Arawak men, women, and children, put them in pens guarded by Spaniards and dogs, then picked the five hundred best specimens to load onto ships. Of those five hundred, two hundred died en route.” • Zinn • “But too many of the slaves died in captivity. And so Columbus, desperate to pay back dividends to those who had invested, had to make good his promise to fill the ships with gold. In the province of Cicao on Haiti, where he and his men imagined huge gold fields to exist, they ordered all persons fourteen years or older to collect a certain quantity of gold every three months. When they brought it, they were given copper tokens to hang around their necks. Indians found without a copper token had their hands cut off and bled to death.” • Zinn
3. I can describe the treatment of Native Americans by the Spaniards. • Bartolomé de las Casas (1484– 1566) • a 16th-century Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar • became the first officially appointed “Protector of the Indians” • his extensive writings, the most famous being A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indiesand Historia de Las Indias, • chronicle the first decades of colonization of the West Indies • focus particularly on the atrocities committed by the colonizers against the indigenous peoples
3. I can describe the treatment of Native Americans by the Spaniards. • “The Indians had been given an impossible task. The only gold around was bits of dust garnered from the streams. So they fled, were hunted down with dogs, and were killed.” • Zinn • “Trying to put together an army of resistance, the Arawaks faced Spaniards who had armor, muskets, swords, horses. When the Spaniards took prisoners they hanged them or burned them to death. Among the Arawaks, mass suicides began, with cassava poison. Infants were killed to save them from the Spaniards. In two years, through murder, mutilation, or suicide, half of the 250,000 Indians on Haiti were dead.” • Zinn • “Las Casas tells how the Spaniards "grew more conceited every day" and after a while refused to walk any distance. They "rode the backs of Indians if they were in a hurry" or were carried on hammocks by Indians running in relays. "In this case they also had Indians carry large leaves to shade them from the sun and others to fan them with goose wings.“ • Zinn • “Total control led to total cruelty. The Spaniards "thought nothing of knifing Indians by tens and twenties and of cutting slices off them to test the sharpness of their blades." Las Casas tells how "two of these so-called Christians met two Indian boys one day, each carrying a parrot; they took the parrots and for fun beheaded the boys.“ • Zinn
4. I can predict how Columbus’s actions will impact future colonization in the Americas. • Diseases • immunity • smallpox, measles, mumps, chickenpox, typhus • wipes out estimated 90% of Native-American populations • Ethnocentrism • belief in racial, cultural, national superiority over others • Trade • Mercantilist doctrine of accumulation of wealth vs. communal respect for nature • Columbian Exchange (p. 30-31)
5. I can debate the merit of Columbus Day as a national holdiay. • Pro’s • Con’s
5. I can debate the merit of Columbus Day as a national holdiay. • Pro’s • In sailing west to the Far East, he accidently “discovered” land previously unknown to contemporary Europeans. • His achievement resulted in a permanent relationship between Europe and the America’s. • His was 1st step in a long process that produced the United States, a new democratic society. • The discovery was an essential factor in ushering in the modern age.
5. I can debate the merit of Columbus Day as a national holdiay. Con’s • His brutal actions toward Native-Americans were unnecessarily cruel and plainly immoral and are not worthy of any national holiday. • Considering a holiday from the viewpoint of Native Americans, who were here far before Columbus, seems insensitive and inconsiderate. • Columbus opened an era of genocide, cruelty, and slavery on a larger scale than ever seen before. • As a country, how does it make us look to the world to celebrate a man who committed such heinous acts?
6. I can discuss the various ways in which Europeans impacted the lives of Native Americans.
6. I can discuss the various ways in which Europeans impacted the lives of Native Americans.
7. I can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization. Religious • Protestant Reformation • Henry VIII • Puritans • Separatists • Mayflower • Plymouth • Massachusetts Bay (p. 52) • John Winthrop • “City Upon A Hill” • A “theocracy” • Yet, beginnings of separation of church and state
7. I can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization. • Massachusetts Bay p. 52 • Family life • Community interference if necessary; • Dissent? • Roger Williams & Anne Hutchinson • Native American Relations • from beginning, trade, agricultural advice from Native groups to colonists; • disease and loss of land results in conflict; • Pequot War • King Philip’s War
7. I can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization. • Massachusetts Bay p. 52 • Puritanism • group of Protestants in 16th century within the Church of England • demanded simplification of doctrine and worship • advocated greater strictness in religious discipline • puritan (lowercase) • a person who is strict in moral or religious matters, often excessively so! • Puritan (Protestant) work ethic • “idle hands are the devil’s workshop”
7. I can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization. • Massachusetts Bay p. 52 • sarcophagus lid of Henry Adams (composed by John Adams) • “This stone and several others have been placed in this yard by a great, great, grandson from a veneration of the piety, humility, simplicity, prudence, frugality, industry, and perseverance of his ancestors in hopes of recommending an affirmation of their virtues to their posterity.” • identify and discuss the values of the Puritans contained within this quote
Bonus Knowledge • Words of Wisdom and to Live By • by John Adams • “The longer I live, the more I read, the more patiently I think, and the more anxiously I inquire, the less I seem to know…. Do justly. Love mercy. Walk humbly. This is enough…. So questions and so answers your affectionate grandfather.” • to grand-daughter Caroline in response to her quandary over the riddles of life
Bonus Knowledge • Words of Wisdom and to Live By • by John Adams • “This phrase “rejoice ever more” shall never be out of my heart, memory, or mouth again as long as I live, if I can help it.” • “Griefs upon griefs! Disappointments upon disappointments. What then? This is a gay, merry world notwithstanding.”
7. I can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization. • Pennsylvania p. 59 • William Penn • The Quaker “Holy Experiment” • “inner light” in each person • services without formal ministers • dressed plainly • no deference to persons of rank • embraced pacifism • no military service • No land-owning aristocracy • Adult male settlers receive 50 acres of land & right to vote
7. I can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization. • Pennsylvania p. 59 • Government • a representative assembly • freedom of religion • Native-American Relations • “people approached in friendship respond in friendship” • letter to the Delaware – p. 60 • paid the Delaware for their land • regulated trade between tribes and colonists • set up a court for adjudication of disputes • no disputes for over 50 years!
7. I can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization. Economic • Unemployment • Desire for markets • Joint-stock companies • Accumulation of surplus capital/profit • Mercantilism • Raw materials • Markets • Land
7. I can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization. • Jamestown p.44 • Joint-stock company • Virginia Company • Tobacco cultivation • John Rolfe • Indentured servants • leads to Bacon’s Rebellion and slavery • Native-American Relations • English vs. Spanish patterns of settlement • mestizovs mulatto • colonial desire for land & crop space leads to warfare • Anglo-Powhatan Wars I & II
7. I can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization. Social & Political The Enlightenment John Locke “social contract” “natural rights” Enclosure movement Desire for adventure Opposition to monarchical form of gov’t Establish military and naval outposts