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Maynard Operation Sequence Technique
Work Measurement System
H. B. Maynard was one of three persons instrumental in the creation of MTM.
Kjell Zandin, while working in the Swedish Division of H. B. Maynard in the late 1960’s, detected striking similarities in the sequence of MTM defined motions whenever an object was handled.
Under MOST, the primary work units are no longer basic motions as in MTM, but collections of these basic motions dealing with moving object.
If the method is well established and the analyst knows the operation and conditions, the Basic MOST calculations can be made from the office and used to predict the times for a new procedure.
Roughly 50% of all manual work occurs as a General Move. operation and conditions, the Basic MOST calculations can be made from the office and used to predict the times for a new procedure.The percentage runs higher for assembly and material handling and lower for machine shop operations.
A B G A B P A
This parameter is used to analyze all spatial movement or actions of the fingers, hands, and/or feet.
This is any displacement of the fingers, hands, and/or feet a distance of 2 inches or less.
Actions that are confined to an area described by the arc of the outstretched arm pivoted about the shoulder.
The trunk of the body is shifted or displaced by walking, stepping to the side, or turning the body around using 1 or 2 steps.
Used with Action Distance data table to cover longer movements.
This parameter is used to analyze either vertical motions of the body or the actions necessary to overcome an obstruction or impairment to body movement.
From an erect standing position, the trunk of the body is lowered by bending from the waist and/or knees to allow the hands to reach below the knees.
Bend & Arise is required only 50% of the time during a repetitive activity.
A series of several hand, foot, and body motions to move a stool / chair into position followed by the body sitting or standing.
This is a case where a sitting person must stand up and walk to a location to gain control of an object placed below knee level, where a Bend & Arise is required.
This applies when gaining control of an object requires a Bend & Arise followed by a Sit prior to placing the object.
This parameter variant covers climbing on or off a work platform on any raised surface (~3 ft) using a series of hand and body motions to lift or lower the body.
Passing through a door consists of reaching for and turning the handle, opening the door, walking through the door, and subsequently closing the door.
This parameter is used to analyze all manual motions employed to obtain complete manual control of an object(s) and to subsequently relinquish that control.
Gain control of an object by grasping it as long as no difficulty is encountered.
One hand gains control of a light object while the other hand obtains another light object.
While one hand is grasping an object, the other hand must wait before it can grasp the other object.
In grasping a heavy or bulky object there is a delay between when the object is grasped and when it begins to move due to weight, bulk, etc.
Access to the object is restricted because an obstacle prevents the operator from seeing the object or creates an obstruction to the hand/fingers in attempting to gain control.
An application of muscular force to free an object from its surroundings typified by a need to overcome resistance followed by sudden movement and recoil of the object.
Interlocked means the object is intermingled or tangled with other objects and must be separated or worked free before reaching control.
Gain control of several objects jumbled together in a pile or spread out on a surface.
This parameter is used to analyze actions at the final stage of an object’s displacement to align, orient, and/or engage the object with other object(s) before control of the object is relinquished.
This is “placement” in which no placement occurs. The object is picked up and held.
Another “placement” where placement does not occur. The object is released during the “action distance” (A) parameter without placing motions or pause to point the object toward the target.
The object is placed in an appropriate locations with no apparent aligning or adjusting motions.
The object is placed in a more specific location than described by the Lay Aside parameter, but with tolerances so loose that only a modest amount of control is needed for placement.
Adjustments are defined as the corrective actions occurring at the point of placement, and recognized by obvious efforts, hesitations, or correcting motions to align, orient, and/or engage the object.
Because of close tolerances or the nature of the placement, the application of muscular force is needed to seat the object.
With “double”, two distinct phases occur during the total placing activity.
Extreme care is needed to place an object within a closely defined relationship with another object, and characterized by the obvious slow motion of the placement due to the high degree of concentration required.
As a result of very tight tolerances, a high degree of muscular force is needed to engage the object.
Accessibility to the point of placement is restricted because an obstacle prevents the operator from seeing the point of placement, or creates an obstruction to the hand/fingers when attempting to place the object.
Several intermediate moves of the object are required prior to placing.
From a stack located 10 feet away, a heavy object must be picked up and moved 5 feet and placed on top of a workbench with some adjustments.
An assembly worker gets a handful of washers (6) from a bin located within reach and puts one on each of six bolts located within reach, which are four inches apart.
A worker gains control of two fittings that are within reach and located more than two inches apart, one at a time, and places them on separate trays that are within reach and located less than 2 inches apart.
When the body is simply lowered into a chair from an erect position, without hand/foot motions required to manipulate the chair.
In this case the operator must feel around for the placement location before a loose placement can occur.
Three new operation and conditions, the Basic MOST calculations can be made from the office and used to predict the times for a new procedure.subactivities are found in the Controlled Move Sequence
“M” Move Controlled
“X” Process Times
The Controlled Move follows a fixed sequence of steps: displacement of an object over a “controlled” path.
Reach, either directly or in conjunction with body motions or steps.
Gain control of the object.
Move the object over a controlled path.
Allow time for the process to occur.
Align the object after the move/process.
Return to the workplace.
This parameter is used to analyze all manually guided movements or actions of an object over a controlled path.
Object displacement is achieved by a movement of the fingers/hands/feet not exceeding 12 inches.
The device is actuated by a short pressing, moving, or rotating action of the fingers/hands/wrist/feet.
Object displacement is achieved by a movement of the hands, arms, or feet, plus body motion, exceeding 12 inches.
Conditions surrounding the object or device require that resistance be overcome prior to, during, or after the Controlled Move.
This parameter reflects the need to align an object using a high degree of visual concentration.
An object is displaced in two directions or increments a distance not exceeding 12 inches per stage without relinquishing control.
An object is displaced in two directions or increments a distance exceeding 12 inches per stage without relinquishing control.
An object is displaced three or four directions or increments without relinquishing control or pushed/pulled on a conveyor belt.
Push or pull an object(s) using 6 - 9 steps.
“Cranking” action is performed by moving the fingers, hand, wrist, and/or forearm in a circular path more than half a revolution. Less than this is considered a Push/Pull/Pivot.
If cranking results in a back - and - forth movement of the elbow instead of pivoting at the wrist and / or elbow, it is considered push - pull cranking.
Process time is that portion of work controlled by electronic or mechanical devices / machines, not by manual actions.
Alignment refers to manual actions number should not exceed 20% of the cycle time.following the Move Controlled or at the conclusion of process time to achieve an alignment or specific orientation of objects.
Within the area of normal vision (a 4” diameter circle), the alignment of an object to two points can be performed without any additional “eye times”.
Following a controlled move, an object is aligned to one point.
The object is aligned to points not more than 4 inches apart following a Controlled Move.
The object is aligned to points more than 4 inches apart following a Controlled Move.
The object is aligned to several points with extreme care or precision following a Controlled Move.
A Machining Operations parameter where the machine tool is aligned to the workpiece prior to making a cut.
Another Machining Operations parameter, the machine tool is aligned to a scale mark prior to making a cut.
The third Machining Operations parameter, the machine tool is aligned to the correct indicator dial setting prior to making a cut.
Nontypical objects are those that are especially large, flimsy, sharp, or require special handling.
Alignment of a nontypical object normally takes place as a series of short correcting motions (< 2”) following the Controlled Move, usually with the assistance of stops, guides, or marks.
From a position in front of a lathe, the operator takes two steps to the side, turns the handwheel two rotations, and sets the cutting tool by aligning the handwheel dial to a scale mark.
A milling machine operator walks four steps to the quick-feeding cross lever and engages the feed. The machine time following the 4” lever action is 2.5 seconds.
A material handler takes hold of a heavy carton with both hands and pushes it 18” across conveyor rollers.
Using the foot pedal to activate the machine, a sewing machine operator makes a stitch requiring 3.5 seconds process time. The operator must reach the pedal with the foot.
The Tool Use Sequence model makes use of the “A”, “B”, “G”, and “P” parameters, which are all familiar to us, plus the new Tool Use parameters.
A B G A B P * A B P A
* consists of the “tool use” parameters F, L, C, S, M, R, & T.
Manually or mechanically assembling or disassembling one object to or from another using the fingers, a hand, or hand tools.
Finger Spins are the movement of the fingers and thumb to run a threaded fastener down or out, and include a light application of pressure for seating / unseating the fastener.
During a wrist turn, the tool is not removed from the fastener during use and not repositioned on the fastener after an action.
In this tool use, after each stroke with the tool and before making each subsequent stroke, the tool must be removed from the fastener and repositioned.
Wrist crank applies to tools that are spun or rotated around a fastener while remaining affixed to it.
This parameter covers the use of a hammer (or similar device) to exert short tapping motions by pivoting the hand at the wrist.
Arm Turn(s), applying to ratchets, occur when the tool is held near the end of the handle, resulting in a pulling action on the tool.
Following each stroke or pull with the tool, it must be removed and repositioned again on the fastener before making a subsequent pull.
The tool is used with a circular movement of the forearm as it is pivoted at the elbow or the shoulder to push or crank the tool around the fastener.
Strike is the use of a hammer with an up - and - down motion performed with the hand as it is pivoted from the elbow.
A two - handed arm action, including the reach for each hand to the opposite handle before making the next turn, and involving a 180 degree turn of the T-wrench with each action.
The use of electric and pneumatic power wrenches to run a standard threaded fastener down or out a length 1 1/2 times the bolt diameter.
The time values generated by the data card for power tool use must be compared to the times generated by the tools used in the shop, and adjusted if necessary.
As a general rule, the “P” parameter for the Fasten / Loosen tools will carry the index values indicated in the Tool Placement table.
An operator picks up a screwdriver within reach and tightens two screws with six wrist turns each and then sets aside the screwdriver.
A screw is fastened with a screwdriver. A total of 18 spins and 4 wrist turns are necessary.
A nut is fastened with a ratchet wrench. Following 3 wrist cranks, 6 wrist turns are applied.
Obtain a nut from a parts bin located within reach, place it on a bolt, and run it down with 7 finger actions.
Pick up a small screwdriver that lies within reach and fasten a screw with 6 finger actions, and set aside the tool.
Obtain a power wrench that lies within reach, run down four 3/8” bolts located 6” apart, and set aside wrench.
From a position in front of an engine lathe, obtain a large T-wrench located 5 steps away and loosen one bolt on a chuck on the engine lathe with both hands using five arm actions. Set aside the T-wrench from the machine, but within reach.
An operator picks up a knife from a workbench two steps away, makes one cut across the top of a cardboard box, and sets aside the knife on the workbench.
During a sewing operation, a tailor cuts the thread from the machine before setting aside the finished garment. The scissors are held in the palm during the sewing operation.
Following a soldering operation, an electronic component assembler must cut off the excess small - gauge wire from a terminal connection. The pliers are located within reach.
An electrician working on transmission lines takes a pair of pliers from the tool belt and cuts off a piece of line. The line is heavy, such that 2 hands are needed to cut through the wire.
Surface Treat covers the activities aimed at cleaning material or particles from or applying a substance, coating, or finish to the surface of an object.
Before marking off a piece of sheet metal (4 ft sq) for a cutting operation, the operator takes a rag from his or her back pocket and wipes an oily film from the surface.
Following a sanding operation, an operator standing at a workbench picks up a brush located within reach and brushes the dust and chips from the working are (6 ft sq), and then sets aside the brush on the workbench.
Before assembling three components to a casting, the operator obtains an air hose (within reach) and blows the small metal filings left from the previous machining operation out of 3 cavities. The distance between cavities is > 2”.
Used to compare the profile of an object to that of the gauge.
Covers the use of a linear (yardstick) or angular (protractor) measuring device.
Covers the use of vernier calipers with a capacity to 12 inches.
Covers the use of a gauge to measure the gap between two points.
This parameter covers the use of a steel tape to measure, from a fixed position, between two points.
Before welding two steel plates, a welder obtains a square and checks the angle between the plates to see that it is correct. The square (a profile gauge) is located three steps away on a workbench.
Following a turning operation, a machinist checks the diameter of a small shaft with a micrometer. The micrometer is located on and returned to the workbench 2 steps away.
After finishing an assigned job, the operator picks up a clipboard and pencil (simo) from the workbench, fills out the completion date on the job card, and signs his name. He then returns the board and pencil to the workbench.
To order a part, a clerk takes a pencil from her shirt pocket and writes a six-digit part number on the requisition form on her desk. She then clips the pencil back in her pocket.
Part of a packing operation involves identifying the components in the carton. This involves picking up a felt marker (within reach) and marking a 6-digit number on the container.
Most of the time “think” occurs internal to the manual work, but there are times it must be considered as a separate activity.
The type of inspection work we’re looking at here is that where only simple “yes / no” decisions are quickly made on the existence of a particular defect in a part.
During a testing operation, an electronics technician picks up a meter lead, places it on a terminal, and reads voltage off the meter scale. The lead is then put aside.
Prior to starting a turning operation, an operator picks up a work order set and reads a paragraph that describes the method to be followed. It contains an average of 30 words. The operator then places the set aside on the workbench.