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2010 Roman history. Hannibal & Scipio. 1. Hannibal fought 4 Carthage 2. Scipio fought 4 Rome. 3. 2 nd Punic War 4. Hannibal crosses Alpes with elephants 5. Hannibal in Italy for 15 years! 6. Battle of Zama-Scipio wins. Gracchi brothers. 1. famous mother, Cornelia (famous family),

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hannibal scipio
Hannibal & Scipio
  • 1. Hannibal fought 4 Carthage
  • 2. Scipio fought 4 Rome.
  • 3. 2nd Punic War
  • 4. Hannibal crosses Alpes with elephants
  • 5. Hannibal in Italy for 15 years!
  • 6. Battle of Zama-Scipio wins
gracchi brothers
Gracchi brothers
  • 1. famous mother, Cornelia (famous family),

called her sons her jewels

2. extend citizenship to others

3. poor people get LAND! Everyone wants LAND!

4. populares party!! For the plebs and their rights.

CHANGE AGENTS!! REFORMERS!!

marius
Marius
  • Consul 7 x
  • Populares party (Caesar’s uncle)
  • Enemy was Sulla
  • Proscription list=hit list
  • Changed/reformed the army; made it a professional army by letting in plebs & paying them! 20 years in army now.
sulla
Sulla
  • Optimates
  • Dictator
  • Marched on Rome with his army; illegal!
  • Enemy was Marius
  • Proscription list =hit list
spartacus 73 71 bc
Spartacus: 73-71 BC
  • - slave turned gladiator turned revolt leader
  • Slaves busted out of gladiator school
  • Defeat 5 Roman armies
  • Crassus finally puts the slave revolt down
cicero
CICERO
  • -optimates
  • Lawyer
  • consul
  • He is #1 public speaker in Roman history!
  • (Caesar is #2)
  • Finds out about Catiline’s plan to overthrow him.
catiline vs cicero
Catiline vs. Cicero
  • Catiline a bad boy, corrupt, power hungry
  • -populares
  • Runs in election 2 B consul; loses to Cicero and plans a conspiracy to overthrow Cicero!
  • Cicero finds out and gets rid of Catiline.
roman army
Roman army
  • 1. organized: legion has 6000 men
  • 2. weapons: gladius (sword) & scutum (shield)
  • 3. tactics: testudo- turtle formation with shields.
pompey vs pirates
Pompey vs. pirates
  • -pirates taking ships and cargo, kidnapping people for ransom (incl. Julius Caesar)
  • Pompey given vast powers to rid sea of pirates
  • He does it in 3 months
1st triumvirate
1st Triumvirate
  • 1. Crassus $$$
  • 2. Pompey-military
  • 3. J. Caesar- people loved him; charisma
  • 4. Why? Power
  • 5. Pompey married JC’s daughter
  • 5. Crassus dies 1st; other 2 fight it out for power.
julius caesar
JULIUS CAESAR
  • 100-44 BC
  • -populares party
  • In 1st Triumvirate
  • Excellent soldier
  • Very popular with Roman people
julius caesar vs gauls
Julius Caesar vs. Gauls
  • Book: The Commentaries about the Gallic Wars
  • Defeats many Gallic tribes
  • Battle of Alesia-final battle
j caesar s 3 wives
J. Caesar’s 3 wives
  • - Cornelia (daughter of powerful populares dude); one daughter Julia
  • -Pompeia
  • -Calpurnia (dream about his death)
caesar vs pompey
Caesar vs. Pompey
  • -Caesar crosses Rubicon River after Gallic Wars
  • SENATE says NO!
  • By doing that he was declaring civil war in Rome
  • They fought all over Mediterranean
  • Pompey loses battle & his head
julius caesar and cleopatra
Julius Caesar and Cleopatra
  • -she meets him in a rug/carpet
  • She rules Egypt with her brother
  • She wants Caesar to put her in power over the bro
  • Romance on the Nile River
  • Had a son with Caesar (Caesarian)
assassination of caesar
ASSASSINATION OF CAESAR
  • Who was in on the plot? Cassius & Brutus (optimates)

IDES OF MARCH [March 15, 44 BC]

  • What? Let’s kill Caesar on way to/from Senate.
  • They do. Wife warned against it! 23 knife wounds. Et tu, Brute!

---Then what? Antony & Octavian go after assassins til they die.

why kill caesar
WHY kill Caesar?
  • Reasons:
  • Afraid he’d be king
  • Optimates feared his power
  • Hated that he was self appointed dictator for life.
  • He was too ambitious
  • Could not trust him
2 nd triumvirate
2nd Triumvirate
  • Split Rome’s provinces 3 ways:
  • Marc Antony (populares)
  • Octavian (Caesar’s heir); optimates
  • Lepidus (1st one out); military
cicero vs antony
Cicero vs. Antony
  • Philippics: speeches by Cicero that angered Antony
  • Antony planned to run the whole Roman world. Cicero stood against him & 2nd Triumvirate.
  • Cicero on Antony’s hit list! Head & hands cut off & hung in Forum.
cleo antony
Cleo & Antony
  • -Antony wants her $$ & grain
  • -Cleo is in mad love with him; he is madly in love with Cleo! 11 years!
  • BATTLE OF ACTIUM: Octavian wins
  • Antony & Cleo both commit suicide
battle of actium
BATTLE OF ACTIUM
  • Antony/ Cleopatra vs. Octavian
  • 31 BC; coast of Greece
  • Naval battle won by Octavian
  • Cleo-suicide
  • Antony-suicide
lucretius poet
LUCRETIUS- poet
  • - De RerumNatura
  • - reason more important than the gods.
vergil
VERGIL
  • Wrote the AENEID
  • -epic poetry: Rome is best!!
  • Augustus hired him to write it
  • -influenced Dante (Renaissance writers loved Vergil)
horace
HORACE
  • Roman poet who influenced many Renaissance writers
  • Favored by Augustus (gave his estate to Augustus in his will)
  • Dulce et decorum est pro patriāmori
  • Carpe diem!
slide50
OVID
  • Wrote The Art of Love and The Metamorphoses (myths).
  • Exile to Black Sea town.
  • Why exiled? The book or wild lifestyle with Augustus’ daughter, Julia.
pax romana
PAX ROMANA
  • -200 years of Roman Peace
  • Begun by Augustus
  • -trade expands
  • -some persecution of Xns. Starts with Nero.
livy historian
LIVY: Historian
  • - Ab Urbe Condita (from the foundation of the city): 700+ years of history of Rome
  • 142 books; only about 30 are left
  • Purpose of the book: to glorify Rome!!!
  • - prose
  • Story of the sacred geese