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Schrödinger’s Rainbow: The Renaissance in Quantum Optical Interferometry. Jonathan P. Dowling Quantum Science & Technologies ( Q S T ) Group Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics Louisiana State University. http://quantum.phys.lsu.edu. Table of Contents. • Quantum Technologies

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slide1

Schrödinger’s Rainbow:

The Renaissance in Quantum Optical Interferometry

Jonathan P. Dowling

Quantum Science & Technologies (QST) Group

Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics

Louisiana State University

http://quantum.phys.lsu.edu

slide2

Table of Contents

• Quantum Technologies

• Schrödinger’s Cat and All That

• Quantum Light—Over the Rainbow

• Putting Entangled Light to Work

• The Yellow-Brick Roadmap

slide3

Quantum

Atomics

Ion Traps

Cavity QED

Linear Optics

Bose-Einstein

Atomic Coherence

Ion Traps

Quantum

Optics

Quantum

Information

Processing

Quantum

Mechanical

Systems

Coherent

Quantum

Electronics

Superconductors

Excitons

Spintronics

Pendulums

Cantilevers

Phonons

Quantum Technology: The Second Quantum Revolution

JP Dowling & GJ Milburn, Phil. Transactions of the Royal Soc. of London

slide6

Quantum Kitty Review

A sealed and insulated box (A) contains a radioactive source (B) which has a 50% chance during the course of the "experiment" of triggering Geiger counter (C) which activates a mechanism (D) causing a hammer to smash a flask of prussic acid (E) and killing the cat (F).

An observer (G) must open the box in order to collapse the state vector of the system into one of the two possible states. A second observer (H) may be needed to collapse the state vector of the larger system containing the first observer (G) and the apparatus (A-F). And so on ...

slide7

Paradox? What Paradox!?

(1.) The State of the Cat is “Entangled” with That of the Atom.

(2.) The Cat is in a Simultaneous Superposition of Dead & Alive.

(3.) Observers are Required to “Collapse” the Cat to Dead or Alive

slide8

Quantum Entanglement

“Quantum entanglement is the characteristic trait of quantum mechanics, the one that enforces its entire departure from classical lines of thought.”

— Erwin Schrödinger

slide9

A

B

Conservation of Classical Angular Momentum

slide10

David Bohm

Entangled

A

B

Conservation of Quantum Spin

slide11

Albert Einstein

Boris Podolsky

Nathan Rosen

Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen (EPR) Paradox

“If, without in any way disturbing a system, we can predict with certainty ... the value of a physical quantity, then there exists an element of physical reality corresponding to this physical quantity."

slide12

+

A

B

A

B

Can the Spooky, Action-at-a-distance Predictions (Entanglement) of Quantum Mechanics…

+

A

B

A

B

…Be Replaced by Some Sort of Local, Statistical, Classical (Hidden Variable) Theory?

Hidden Variable Theory

slide13

John Bell

NO!—Bell’s Inequality

The physical predictions of quantum theory disagree with those of any local (classical) hidden-variable theory!

slide14

H

V

Two-Photon

Atomic

Decay

H

V

V

H

+

A

B

A

B

A

B

V

H

Alain Aspect

John Clauser

Clauser (1978) & Aspect (1982) Experiments

V= Vertical Polarization

H = Horizontal Polarization

slide17

Photon Pairs

Signal B

UV

Pump

Type I

Idler A

,

,

k

,

,

k

,

,

k

,

,

k

w

j

w

j

+

w

j

w

j

s

s

s

i

i

s

i

i

i

s

s

s

A

B

A

B

Parametric Downconversion: Type I

Degenerate (Entangled) Case: ws=wi

slide19

Degenerate (Entangled) Case: ws=wi

H

V

V

H

+

A

B

A

B

B

A

Parametric Downconversion: Type II

slide22

Type II Downcoversion

Anton Zeilinger

Alice

Bob

Tests of Bell’s Inequalities at Innsbruck

slide25

EPR Source

Experiment

Bell State Analysis

Teleportation Experiment at Innsbruck

slide26

Alan Migdall

NIST Heralded Photon Absolute Light Source

Output characteristics :

photon #  known

photon timing  known

wavelength  known

direction  known

polarization  known

slide27

Detector to be Calibrated

Trigger or “Herald” Detector

Detector Quantum Efficiency Scheme

No External Standards Needed!

characterizing two photon entanglement
Characterizing Two-Photon Entanglement

Detector

PBS

HWP

QWP

This setup allows measurement of an arbitrary polarization state in each arm.

Kwiat Super-Bright Source

QWP

HWP

PBS

Detector

Black Box

Generates arbitrary

Entangled States

Paul KwiatU. Illinois

Any two-photon tomography requires 16 of these measurements.

Examples

Arm 1Arm 2

H V

H R

D D

slide30

System Under Lake Geneva

Bob and “Charly” Share Random Crypto Key

Nicolas Gisin

Quantum Cryptography at University of Geneva

slide33

Quantum Optical Lithography

Quantum Peak

Is Narrower and

Spacing is HALVED!

Classical One-Photon Absorption —

Classical Two-Photon Absorption —

Quantum Two-Photon Absorption —

slide34

Image of the wave plate plane with waist=300m

33cm

3.3cm

coherent beam

R=0.92

0.08

+ 0.92

wave plate

lens f=3cm

squeezed vacuum : OPA

Hans Bachor

Australian National University

Displacement Measurements and Gravity Waves

slide35

A

B

Seth

Lloyd

MIT

Quantum Clock Synchronization

Entangled Photons Can Synchronize Past the Turbulent Atmosphere!

slide36

Entangled Photons are a Resource for Scalable Quantum Computation!

E. Knill, R. Laflamme and G. Milburn, Nature 409, 46, (2001)

Gerard

Milburn

University

Of

Queensland

Quantum Controlled-NOT Gate using and Entangled-Light Source, Beam Splitters, and Detectors.

Quantum Computing

slide38

Imaging

Communications

Clock Synchronization

Metrology

Sensors

The Yellow-Brick Roadmap

Computing