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Macro- or Microstructure? Improving the lexical coverage of an electronic dictionary while enriching microstructural information. X. Blanco, A. Catena, S. Fuentes Autonomous University of Barcelona. Xavier.Blanco@uab.es. Outline. Electronic Dictionaries of Spanish. Macro- or microstructure ?.

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Macro- or Microstructure?Improving the lexical coverage of an electronic dictionarywhile enriching microstructural information

X. Blanco, A. Catena, S. Fuentes

Autonomous University of Barcelona

Xavier.Blanco@uab.es

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003

outline
Outline

Electronic Dictionaries of Spanish

Macro- or microstructure?

Case studies:

prefixed forms

suffixed forms

cliticized forms

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003

introduction

HAMT

MT

Indexation

Electronic

Dictionaries

Spelling

Semantics

IR

Morphology

Syntax

Search

Engines

Introduction

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003

macrostructure
Macrostructure

Electronic Dictionary of simple forms:

80 000 entries – 1 000 000 inflectional forms

Electronic Dictionary of compound forms:

250 000 compound nouns

4 500 compound adverbs

Other Databases:

75 000 Proper Nouns

260 000 FFF

etc.

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003

microstructure samples
G: N5;4

M: -

T: Abst

C: <textos>

D: cinéma

P: R1P1

R: estándar

V: -

N0: Hum

N1: de <films>

N2: según <textos: lit>

Caus1Func0: escribir

Labor13: adaptar

S0Labor13: adaptación

A2Labor13: adaptado de, basado en

Bon: interesante, apasionate, inteligente

AntiBon: absurdo, incoherente, aburrido

Real: leer

S: script, argumento, intriga, trama

Fr: scénario

En: script

De: Drehbuch

(...)

Microstructure Samples

guión (script)

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003

macro or microstructure
Macro- or Microstructure?

Unknown words:

dame

dámelo

léelo

léeselo

...

donne-le-lui

Unknown words:

inabatible

inacostumbrado

imborrable

reacostumbrar

reaceptar

complet(o)ísimo

querid(o)ísimo

riquísimo

pastelito

puebl(o)ecito

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003

macro or microstructure7
Macro- or Microstructure?

Lemma

Microstructural information

Derived

lemma

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003

unknown simple words analyzed tokens pfx sfx
Unknown simple words &Analyzed tokens (PFX & SFX)

323,072 unknown unigrams in Spanish Webpages

68,818 candidates to new simple-word lexical entries

PFX.grf (99) 6.380 analyzed tokens

SFX.grf (54) 271 analyzed tokens

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003

three different classes of analyzed tokens
Three different classes of Analyzed tokens
  • First case:
    • The constructed form is lexicalized
    • Then, we need to add a new, independent entry

e.g. prelavado (prewashing), macrofiesta...

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003

three different classes of analyzed tokens12
Three different classes of Analyzed tokens
  • Second case:
    • The constructed form is lexically conditioned
    • Then, it must be explicitly indicated in the “Lexical Functions” area of the microstructure of the lexical basis

e.g. superamigos, ??archiamigos, ??hiperamigos, *maxiamigos

“somos superamigos” = “somos muy amigos”, “somos amigos íntimos” (close friends)

Lexical Function = Magn (close friends, heavy smoker, confirmed bachelor...)

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003

three different classes of analyzed tokens13
Three different classes of Analyzed tokens
  • Third case:

The constructed forms is actually a constructed form !

In other words, a lexical unit of the dictionary plus a prefix that expresses a value of the actualisation of this lexical unit: tense, aspect, diathesis, negation or quantification.

The bad news:

In order to generate reasonable hypothesis, we need to represent some linguistic constraints.

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003

some linguistic contraints
Some linguistic contraints

anteparto,

{ante,ante.PFX+tps+anterioridad},{parto,parto.N1+Abst:ms}

antepuerto,

{ante,ante.PFX+posición},{puerto,puerto.N1+Loc:ms}

Pattern: ex + Nhum<post>:

  • exrector,{ex,ex.PFX+tps+anterioridad},{rector,rector.N51:ms}
  • expresidente,{ex,ex.PFX+tps+anterioridad}/{presidente,presidente.N50:ms}

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003

prefixes tense
Prefixes: Tense

ante,PFX+temporal+anterioridad

ex,PFX+temporal+anterioridad

neo,PFX+temporal+posterioridad

pre,PFX+temporal+anterioridad

pos,PFX+temporal+posterioridad

post,PFX+temporal+posterioridad

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003

prefixes aspect aktionsart
Prefixes: Aspect & Aktionsart

re,PFX+modo de accción+iteración

sobre,PFX+modo de accción+nimifactivo

sub,PFX+modo de accción+refactivo

Prefixes: Diathesis

auto,PFX+diatesis+reflexividad

co,PFX+ diatesis +comitativo

entre,PFX+ diatesis +reciprocidad

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003

prefixes negation
Prefixes: Negation

anti,PFX+negación+oposición

contra,PFX+negación+oposición

des,PFX+negación+privación

des,PFX+negación+reversión

in,PFX+negación

sin,PFX+negación+privación

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003

prefixes quantification
Prefixes: Quantification

multi,PFX+cuantificación

octa,PFX+cuantificación

octo,PFX+cuantificación

penta,PFX+cuantificación

pluri,PFX+cuantificación

poli,PFX+cuantificación

sex,PFX+cuantificación

tetra,PFX+cuantificación

tri,PFX+cuantificación

uni,PFX+cuantificación

bi,PFX+cuantificación

cuatri,PFX+cuantificación

deca,PFX+cuantificación

dodeca,PFX+cuantificación

endeca,PFX+cuantificación

enea,PFX+cuantificación

hecto,PFX+cuantificación

hepta,PFX+cuantificación

hexa,PFX+cuantificación

mono,PFX+cuantificación

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003

prefixes lexical functions
Prefixes: Lexical Functions

infra,PFX+FL+AnMagn

infra,PFX+FL+Loc

inter,PFX+FL+Loc

intra,PFX+FL+Loc

intro,PFX+FL+Loc

iso,PFX+FL+Magn

macro,PFX+FL+Magn

mal,PFX+FL+Magn

maxi,PFX+FL+Magn

medio,PFX+FL+Magn

mega,PFX+FL+Magn

meta,PFX+FL+Magn

micro,PFX+FL+Magn

mini,PFX+FL+Magn

para,PFX+FL+Magn

peri,PFX+FL+Magn

post,PFX+FL+Loc

pre,PFX+FL+Loc

pro,PFX+FL+Loc

pseudo,PFX+FL+AntiVer

re,PFX+FL+Loc

re,PFX+FL+Magn

requete,PFX+FL+Magn

retro,PFX+FL+Loc

seudo,PFX+FL+AntiVer

so,PFX+FL+Magn

sobre,PFX+FL+Loc

sobre,PFX+FL+Magn

soto,PFX+FL+Loc

sub,PFX+FL+AntiMagn

sub,PFX+FL+Loc

super,PFX+FL+Loc

super,PFX+FL+Magn

supra,PFX+FL+Loc

supra,PFX+FL+Loc

trans,PFX+FL+Loc

tras,PFX+FL+Loc

ultra,PFX+FL+Loc

ultra,PFX+FL+Magn

vice,PFX+FL+Loc

ante,PFX+FL+Loc

anti,PFX+FL+Loc

archi,PFX+FL+Magn

casi,PFX+FL+AntiVer

circun,PFX+FL+Loc

cuasi,PFX+FL+AntiVer

endo,PFX+FL+Loc

entre,PFX+FL+Loc

epi,PFX+FL+Loc

equi,PFX+FL

exo,PFX+FL+Loc

extra,PFX+FL+Loc

extra,PFX+FL+Magn

hetero,PFX+FL

hiper,PFX+FL+Magn

hipo,PFX+FL+AnMagn

homo,PFX+FL

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003

appreciative suffixes
Appreciative Suffixes

ecito,.SFX+diminutivo

eja,.SFX+diminutivo

ejo,.SFX+diminutivo

engue,.SFX+peyorativo

eta,.SFX+diminutivo

ete,.SFX+diminutivo

ica,.SFX+diminutivo

ico,.SFX+diminutivo

illa,.SFX+diminutivo

illo,.SFX+diminutivo

ín,.SFX+diminutivo

ina,.SFX+diminutivo

ingo,.SFX+peyorativo

ingue,.SFX+peyorativo

ita,.SFX+diminutivo

ito,.SFX+diminutivo

ón,.SFX+aumentativo

ona,.SFX+aumentativo

orio,.SFX+peyorativo

orra,.SFX+peyorativo

orrio,.SFX+peyorativo

orro,.SFX+peyorativo

ota,.SFX+aumentativo

ote,.SFX+aumentativo

uca,.SFX+peyorativo

ucha,.SFX+peyorativo

ucho,.SFX+peyorativo

uco,.SFX+peyorativo

uda,.SFX+aumentativo

udo,.SFX+aumentativo

uela,.SFX+diminutivo

uelo,.SFX+diminutivo

uja,.SFX+peyorativo

ujo,.SFX+peyorativo

ute,.SFX+peyorativo

uza,.SFX+peyorativo

acha,.SFX+peyorativo

acho,.SFX+peyorativo

aco,.SFX+peyorativo

aja,.SFX+peyorativo

ajo,.SFX+peyorativo

al,.SFX+aumentativo

ales,.SFX+peyorativo

alla,.SFX+peyorativo

anga,.SFX+peyorativo

ángana,.SFX+peyorativo

ángano,.SFX+peyorativo

ango,.SFX+peyorativo

astra,.SFX+peyorativo

astre,.SFX+peyorativo

astro,.SFX+peyorativo

aza,.SFX+aumentativo

azo,.SFX+aumentativo

ecita,.SFX+diminutivo

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003

clitic pronouns
Clitic Pronouns

cantarme

cantándome

cántame

...

  • cantar,W
  • cantando,G
  • canta,Y:1s
  • cante,Y:2s
  • cantemos,Y:1p
  • cantad,Y:2p
  • canten,Y:3p

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003

clitic pronouns22
Clitic Pronouns

oslas,.CLIT+N2(2p)_N1(fp)

oslo,.CLIT+N2(2p)_N1(ms)

oslos,.CLIT+N2(2p)_N1(mp)

se,.CLIT+Pron/N1/N2-0

sela,.CLIT+N2(3)_N1(fs)

selas,.CLIT+N2(3)_N1(fp)

sele,.CLIT+Pron_N1/N2(3s)

seles,.CLIT+Pron_N1/N2(3p)

selo,.CLIT+N2(3)_N1(ms)

selos,.CLIT+N2(3)_N1(mp)

seme,.CLIT+Pron_N1/N2(1s)

senos,.CLIT+Pron_N1/N2(1p)

seos,.CLIT+Pron_N1/N2(2p)

sete,.CLIT+Pron_N1/N2(2s)

te,.CLIT+N1/N2(2s)

tela,.CLIT+N2(2s)_N1(fs)

telas,.CLIT+N2(2s)_N1(fp)

telo,.CLIT+N2(2s)_N1(ms)

telos,.CLIT+N2(2s)_N1(mp)

la,.CLIT+N1(3fs)

las,.CLIT+N1(3fp)

le,.CLIT+N1/N2(3s)

les,.CLIT+N1/N2(3p)

lo,.CLIT+N1(3ms)

los,.CLIT+N1(3mp)

me,.CLIT+N1/N2(1s)

mela,.CLIT+N2(1s)_N1(fs)

melas,.CLIT+N2(1s)_N1(fp)

melo,.CLIT+N2(1s)_N1(ms)

melos,.CLIT+N2(1s)_N1(mp)

nos,.CLIT+N1/N2(1p)

nosla,.CLIT+N2(1p)_N1(fs)

noslas,.CLIT+N2(1p)_N1(fp)

noslo,.CLIT+N2(1p)_N1(ms)

noslos,.CLIT+N2(1p)_N1(mp)

os,.CLIT+N1/N2(2p)

osla,.CLIT+N2(2p)_N1(fs)

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003

verbal structures
Verbal Structures

discurrir#1/N0:Tps/Fr:s’écouler/En:to pass

discurrir#2/N0:Hum/N1:Prép loc/Fr:parcourir/En:to wander

discurrir#3/N0:Inc<líquidos>/N1:Prép Loc/Fr:couler/En:to flow

discurrir#4/N0:Loc<vías fluv.>/N1:Prép Loc/Fr:couler/En:to flow

discurrir#5/N0:Hum/N1:Abst/Fr:inventer/En:to think up

discurrir#6/N0:Hum/N1:sobre Abst/Fr:réfléchir/En:to think

discurrir#7/N0:Hum/N1:sobre Abst/N2:con Hum/Es:to discourse

e.g.:

Así que tendréis que discurrirlo vosotros => discurrir#5

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003

conclusions and perspectives
Conclusions and Perspectives
  • An unigram can convey, in a cumulative form, information about actualization, lexical functions and argument structure.
  • The mechanism is, in someway, recursive:

auto-des-programar, auto-des-program-able...

mega-rollitos de primavera...

We need an integrated description of morphology, syntax and semantics !

6th INTEX Workshop Sofia, Bulgaria 28-30 May 2003