Monday, 3/25/13:Introduction to Meat Science • Objectives: • Identify the sources of the nation's meat supply. • Distinguish between inspection and grading. • Bellwork: • What is the definition of Protein? • Research and list 3 sources of protein.
What are the Health Benefits of Meat Products? • Meat, poultry, fish, dry beans and peas, eggs, nuts, and seeds supply many nutrients. These include protein, B vitamins (niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, and B6), vitamin E, iron, zinc, and magnesium. • Proteins function as building blocks for bones, muscles, cartilage, skin, and blood. They are also building blocks for enzymes, hormones, and vitamins. Proteins are one of three nutrients that provide calories (the others are fat and carbohydrates).
How much is needed? • The amount of food from the Protein Foods Group you need to eat depends on age, sex, and level of physical activity. • Most Americans eat enough food from this group, but need to make leaner and more varied selections of these foods.
Protein • Proteins are made up of amino acids. • We need 20 amino acids, but only 9 are essential, meaning they come from food. • Histidine(greatest energy requirements; skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and the brain) • Isoleucine (muscle growth and maintenance) • Leucine (muscle growth and maintenance) • Lysine(build proteins, certain enzymes, hormones and antibodies) • Methionine(healthy skin, and strong hair and nails) • Phenylalanine (supports alertness, mild appetite suppressant) • Threonine(helps maintain the proper balance of protein in the body, formation of collagen and elastin in the skin) • Tryptophan (promotes sound sleep, relaxant) • Valine (muscle growth and maintenance, circulation)
Protein • Complete Proteins– proteins which contain all of the 9 essential amino acids in proportions most useful to the body. • Complete Proteins, such as those in beef, help to: • Build, maintain and repair body tissues • Form body hormones and enzymes • Increase resistance to infection and disease. **One 3-oz cooked burger of 85% lean beef will supply 42% of the Daily Value for protein**
B Vitamins • B Vitamins found in this food group serve a variety of functions in the body. • Adequate B-vitamin intake has been associated with improved cognitive performance. • Niacin (Vitamin B3) promotes healthy skin and nerves, aids digestions, and fosters normal appetite. • Vitamin B6 helps the body make nonessential amino acids. It helps form red blood cells and maintains brain function. • Vitamin B12 is needed for normal functioning of body cells and of the nervous system, and is only found naturally in animal products. **One 3-oz cooked burger of 85% lean beef will supply:** 25% of the daily value for B3 Vitamin 16% of the daily value for B6 40% of daily value for B12 Vitamin.
Iron • Iron is used to carry oxygen in the blood. • Many teenage girls and women in their child-bearing years have iron-deficiency anemia. They should eat foods high in heme-iron (meats). • Helps red blood cells carry oxygen to and away from the other body cells • The iron in meat is called Heme and is easily utilized in the body. **One 3-oz cooked burger of 85% lean beef will supply 13% of the daily value for Iron.**
Zinc • Zinc is used in building bones and in releasing energy from muscles. • Needed to form insulin and enzymes. • Supports the body’s immune system. • Deficiencies of Iron and Zinc may have negative effect on behavior and cognitive functions, like learning. **One 3-oz cooked burger of 85% lean beef will supply 35% of daily value for zinc.**
Fats • Fats are responsible for the flavors, aromas, and textures of foods. • Fats increase the feeling of “satiety” or satisfaction after a meal. • Needed to transport vitamins A, D, E, and K into the body and through the walls of the digestive tract. • **One 3-oz cooked burger of 85% lean beef provides 15% of total daily value of fat.**
Saturated Fatty Acids • Come from animal sources and some vegetables. • Dietary fat is made up of three types of “building blocks” called fatty acids. • Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are usually liquid • Vegetable oil, peanut oil, olive oil, and beef. • Polyunsaturated fatty acids are often soft or liquid. • Corn and soybean oils and most of the fat in seafood. • Trans fatty Acids(TFAs) have been shown to lower “good” cholesterol, thereby increasing the risk for heart disease. • Vast majority of TFAs consumed in the human diet are man-made from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils • Natural occurring TFAs found in animal products have been found to have health benefits and decrease the risk of heart disease. • A TFA found in beef and dairy products is Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) which has been shown to have many health benefits, such as the prevention of certain types of cancers. **One 3-oz cooked burger of 85% lean beef supplies 18% of the daily value of Saturated Fatty Acids.**
Cholesterol • A waxy, fat-like substance needed for cell building, manufacturing Vitamin D and hormones, and other body functions. • The liver produces as much as the body needs, whether or not cholesterol is eaten. **One 3-oz cooked burger of 85% lean beef supplies 24% of daily value of cholesterol.**