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Confucianism. 5 Principle Relationships. 1. Ruler. Subject. 2. Father. Son. 3. Husband. Wife. 4. Older Brother. Younger Brother. 5. Older Friend. Younger Friend. Organizing Principles. Status Age Gender. Social Cohesion is Paramount!.

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slide2

5 Principle Relationships

1.Ruler

Subject

2. Father

Son

3. Husband

Wife

4. Older Brother

YoungerBrother

5. Older Friend

YoungerFriend

slide3

Organizing Principles

  • Status
  • Age
  • Gender
slide4

Social Cohesion is Paramount!

  • The emperor is the example of proper behavior --> “big daddy”
  • Social relationships are based on “rites” or “rituals.”
  • Even religious rituals are important for SOCIAL, not religious reasons, acc. to Confucius.
slide6

Major Legalist Principles

1. Human nature is naturally selfish.

2. Intellectualism and literacy is discouraged.

3. Law is the supreme authority and replaces morality.

4. The ruler must rule with a strong, punishing hand.

5. War is the means of strengthening a ruler’s power.

slide7

Authoritarian

One who favors the principle that individuals should obey a powerful authority rather than exercise individual freedom.

The ruler, therefore, “cracks his whip” on the backs of his subjects!

slide9

The "Dao" [Tao]

Toescape the “social, political, & cultural traps” of life, one must escape by:

1. Rejecting formal knowledge and learning.

2. Relying on the senses and instincts.

3. Discovering the nature and “rhythm” of the universe.

4. Ignoring political and social laws.

slide10

The Universe of Opposites:

Find the Balance!

Yin

  • Masculine
  • Active
  • Light
  • Warmth
  • Strong
  • Heaven; Sun
  • Feminine
  • Passive
  • Darkness
  • Cold
  • Weak
  • Earth; Moon

Yang

daoism star wars
Daoism

The Way or Dao

Yin

Yang

Wu-wei

Laozi

The Force

Sith & Darth Vader

Jedi & Luke Skywalker

Using the force to move objects

Yoda

Daoism & Star Wars
slide13

The Uniqueness of Daoism

How is a man to live in a world dominated by chaos, suffering, and absurdity??

Confucianism--> Moral order in society.

Legalism--> Rule by harsh law & order.

Daoism--> Freedom for individuals and less govt. to avoid uniformity and conformity.

slide14

A new dynasty comes to power.

The emperorreforms the govt.& makes it moreefficient.

Start here

Emperor isdefeated !!

Lives of common people improved;taxes reduced;farming encouraged.

TheDynasticCycle

Rebel bands findstrong leader whounites them.Attack the emperor.

Problems begin(extensive wars,invasions, etc.)

Poor loserespect for govt.They join rebels& attack landlords.

Taxes increase;men forced towork for army.Farming neglected.

Droughts,floods,famines occur.

Govt. increasesspending; corruption.

slide15

During the Qin dynasty, Legalism was

the official philosophy of China.

slide16

It is important to remember that during the

Han dynasty, a scholar had to pass a test

on Chinese history and Confucianism to

work in the government.

the origins of imperial china 221 b c e 220 c e
The Origins of Imperial China, 221 b.c.e.–220 c.e.
  • China is a large region marked by significant ecological, topographical, biological, and climatic diversity.
  • The two most important resources that supported the imperial Chinese state were agricultural production and labor
  • Agricultural production in China was intensive and was taxed by the government.
slide18
Qin and the Han governments exploited the labor power of rural China by demanding that peasant families supply men for labor and for service in the military
  • A periodic census and regularly updated records of land and households enabled officials to collect the proper amount of taxes, labor service, and military service.
chinese family
Chinese Family
  • The family was the basic unity of society
  • The family was conceived of as an unbroken chain of generations including the ancestors as well as the current generations
  • Ancestors were thought to take an active interest in the affairs of the current generation, and they were routinely consulted, appeased, and venerated.
women
Women
  • According to the ideals of the upper classes, women were to cook, take care of household chores, respect their parents-in-law, and obey their husbands
  • Lower-class women may have been less constrained. Marriages were arranged, and a new wife had to prove herself to her husband and to her mother-in-law through hard work, obedience, devotion, and by bearing sons.
the first chinese empire 221 201 b c e
The First Chinese Empire, 221 – 201 b.c.e.
  • After the Warring States Period (480–221 b.c.e.), the state of Qin united China.
  • Factors that enabled Qin to accomplish reunification may include:
  • The ability and ruthlessness of the Qin ruler, Shi Huangdi and his prime minister, Li Si
  • Qin’s location in the Wei valley with its predominantly rural population of independent farming households
  • Qin’s experience in mobilizing manpower for irrigation and flood-control projects, which had strengthened the central government
qin government
Qin Government
  • Suppressed Confucianism
  • Eliminated rival centers of authority
  • Abolished primogeniture and slavery
  • Constructed a rural economy of free land-owning/tax-paying farmers
  • They standardized weights and measures
  • Knit the empire together with roads
  • Defended it with a long wall
qin emperor shi huangdi standardizes all possible
Qin Emperor Shi Huangdi standardizes all possible:
  • The Great Wall
  • Weights & measures
  • Laws
  • Money
  • Thought
qin mistakes
Qin Mistakes
  • Burned books
  • Destroyed major fortifications of the states
  • Assassinated powerful leaders & scholars
  • Collected arms of the empire & melted arrowheads & spears to make 12 statues
  • Failed to rule with humanity—lost the Mandate of Heaven
slide25
The oppressive nature of the Qin regime and its exorbitant demands for taxes and labor led to a number of popular rebellions that overthrew the dynasty after the death of Shi Huangdi in 210 b.c.e.