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  1. Office of Child Developmentand Early Learning Because every child is Pennsylvania’s future

  2. Early Childhood EducationWhy quality early childhood education is so important for all of Pennsylvania’s children.

  3. Taking a look at the bigger picture

  4. Where we stand as a Nation Mathematics In mathematics literacy, 27 percent of U.S. students scored at or above proficiency level 4. This is lower than the 32 percent of students in the OECD countries on average that scored at or above level 4. Source: Highlights From PISA 2009: Performance of U.S. 15-Year-Old Students in Reading, Mathematics, and Science Literacy in an International Context Reading Among the 33 other OECD countries, 6 countries had higher average scores than the United States, 13 had lower average scores, and 14 had average scores not measurably different from the U.S. average. Source: Highlights From PISA 2009: Performance of U.S. 15-Year-Old Students in Reading, Mathematics, and Science Literacy in an International Context Science Less than one-third of U.S. elementary- and high-school students have a solid grasp of science. Scores from a recent international science exam showed U.S. students trailing their counterparts in many European and Asian countries. Source: 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress

  5. Where we stand as a Nation • Workforce • If China and India successfully train less than 10% of their population, their skilled workforce would be nearly equal to the entire U.S. workforce. • Source: U.S. Chamber of Commerce Institute for a Competitive Workforce • By 2018, we will need 22 million new college degrees—but will fall short of that number by at least 3 million postsecondary degrees, Associate’s or better. In addition, we will need at least 4.7 million new workers with postsecondary certificates. • Source: Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce

  6. Where we stand as a Nation • Overall • In 2008 in the United States, there were 325,000 public school students, 16- through 24-year-olds, who were not enrolled in high school and who had not earned a high school credential. • Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences • Out of 34 countries, the United States ranked 14th in reading, 17th in science and 25th in math. Those scores are all higher than those from 2003 and 2006, but far behind the highest scoring countries, including South Korea, Finland and Singapore, Hong Kong and Shanghai in China and Canada. • Source: 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)

  7. Mathematics Proficiency LevelsHow the United States Compares

  8. Science Literacy Scores How the United States Compares

  9. Reading Scores How the United States Compares

  10. “How can any of us sit still when millions of American children are trapped in failing schools and a third of them don’t even get a high school diploma? This is a moral outrage and a ticking social time bomb…we must move faster and more ambitiously on fundamental school reform or we will all pay a horrific price in the years ahead.” • Thomas J. Donohue, President and CEOU.S. Chamber of Commerce • Outlook 2011: The State of American BusinessNational Chamber FoundationJanuary 11, 2011

  11. Future outlook: new, better jobs that require more education Well-paid, low skilled jobs are a thing of the past. 63% percent of jobs in the next decade will require some post-secondary education.

  12. Current and future workforce is not prepared to fill 21st century jobs • 60% of new jobs in the 21st century will require skills, of which only 20% of the current American workforce possess. • Pennsylvania has an over 20% high school dropout rate. • By 2018, the U.S. will have a 3 million college graduates gap to meet labor demands. • If the U.S. doesn’t meet workforce needs, • jobs may go elsewhere.

  13. Closer to home: Pennsylvania • Our Families, Our Schools, Our Communities • Nearly 60% of Pennsylvania children under age five live in economically at-risk families. • Source: Program Reach & Risk • Assessment, 2009-2010 • 46 of Pennsylvania’s 67 counties are at moderate-high or high risk of school failure. • Source: Pennsylvania Office of Child • Development and Early Learning • Annual Report 2009-2010 • More than 14,000 Pennsylvania students dropped out of school prior to graduation in 2009. Over 21% of these students reported a “dislike of school” as the reason for dropping out. • Source: Public Secondary School • Dropouts by School 2008-2009

  14. Closer to home: Pennsylvania continued • Mathematics • Nearly 16% of Pennsylvania’s 3rd graders are not proficient in math. More than 40% of Pennsylvania’s 11th graders are not proficient. • Source: 2009-10 State Level Math, Reading, • Science and Writing PSSA Results • Reading • More than 25% of Pennsylvania’s 3rd graders are not proficient in reading. Nearly 33% of Pennsylvania’s 11th graders are not proficient. • Source: 2009-10 State Level Math, Reading, • Science and Writing PSSA Results

  15. Nearly 20% of Pennsylvania’s 11th graders failed the state’s Reading & Science tests.Nearly 25% of them failed the state’s Math test.

  16. Current outlook: slow recovery, higher public costs • Pennsylvania and the U.S. are facing a “jobless” recovery – the economy will not be back on track until 2015. • Increasing costs for prisons, public assistance and healthcare

  17. “Boosting early childhood investment is absolutely key for rebuilding the foundation for future growth. If we don’t fix early childhood investment, we will have a failed economy. The foundation will collapse.” Source: Michael Mandel, Business Week economist, presentation during the 3rd Annual Conference of the Partnership for America’s Economic Success, September 2009

  18. Snapshot of Pennsylvania’s support of early education • Pennsylvania’s preschoolers* in high quality early childhood education programs: *based on the percentage of 3 and 4 year olds with access to Head Start, Keystone STAR 3 & 4 programs, Preschool Early Intervention and state-funded pre-k.

  19. Why Should Pennsylvania Value Early Childhood Education?

  20. Benefits to Children

  21. The value of Early Childhood Education • Quality early education is essential to healthy brain development and is the necessary first step in a child’s education. The circuits for key functions such as vision/hearing, language, and higher cognitive function develop most in the first five years of life. The creation of these circuits is affected by a child’s early learning environment. Bad experiences actually chew away at brain connections, while good quality experiences spur healthy development. After age five, the number of new connections slows, making it more difficult to build the necessary cognitive and social skills. • Source: Center on the Developing Child, Harvard University • Children who participate in quality early education programs are more likely to do well in school and on academic achievement tests, graduate high school and attend college. • Source: Abecedarian Project, (

  22. Positive brain development • “The brain undergoes its most rapid development in the first three years of life, and in this development the environment plays a central role. Nerve connections that are associated with specific skills such as language are developed during this critical period.” • Source: American Academy of Pediatrics

  23. The impact of neglect on brain development

  24. Neglect hurts brain development • “The systems in the human brain that allow us to form and maintain emotional relationships develop during infancy and the first years of life… with severe emotional neglect in early childhood the impact can be devastating.” • Source: Perry, B.D. (2002) Bonding and attachment in maltreated • children: consequences of emotional neglect • in childhood. Child Trauma Academy Press, 3, 1-30.

  25. The window of opportunity is small • Many of the skills that a child will need later in life are essentially shaped by age five.

  26. Improved health outcomes, lower health care costs • Children exposed to continued toxic stress are more likely to have chronic diseases as adults, such as diabetes and heart disease, and cancer; early education helps prevent toxic stress for young children. • Source: The Foundations for Lifelong Health are • Built in Early Childhood, Center for the Developing Child, • Harvard University • Individuals who had received the intensive early education starting in infancy had significantly better health and better health behaviors as young adults. • Source: Columbia University's Mailman • School of Public Health

  27. A level playing field for future achievement for all children • Children affected by risks such as living in low-income families or low educational level of mother are more likely to enter school unprepared and fall behind. • When they receive quality early education, at-risk children can make up developmental gaps in early years, enter kindergarten at grade level Differences in vocabulary growth between children in low and high socio-economic households begin to appear as early as 18 months

  28. Benefits to Families

  29. “The average working parent in America misses five to nine days of work per year because of child care problems. Thiscosts U.S. businesses $3 billion a year. Research confirms that if parents have quality early care and education available in their communities, not only will absenteeism and turnover go down, but productivity will also go up – immediately improving businesses’ bottom lines.” Source: America's Edge: Strengthening Pennsylvania Businesses through Investments in Early Care and Education: How Investments in Early Learning Increase Sales from Local Businesses, Create Jobs and Grow the Economy. 2011

  30. The impact of accessible and reliable child care • Research has shown that families with access to child care assistance are up to 15 percent more likely to be employed, stay off welfare, and have higher earnings. • When families are not able to access child care assistance, they may go into debt, return to public assistance, choose lower quality, less stable child care, or face untenable choices in their household budgets. • Child care costs are extraordinarily high for working, low-income families - comparable with their housing costs. • Affordable and reliable child care can be the difference between self-sufficiency and improving a family’s quality of life or depending on public assistance and supports just to make ends meet.  

  31. Stronger and more productive families • In Pennsylvania, approximately 60% of children under age six need some form of child care as their families work. • Families with access to quality, reliable early education are more likely to be employed, be productive, and have fewer absences.

  32. Lower rates of child abuse and neglect • “High quality in-home parent coaching services that begin when the mother is pregnant, such as Pennsylvania’s Nurse Family Partnership, can cut cases of child abuse and neglect nearly in half. “ • Source: “Protect Kids: Reduce Crime: Save Money: • Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect in Pennsylvania,” • Fight Crime Invest in Kids, December 2006

  33. Benefits to Pennsylvania

  34. “It’s a question about priorities. Early childhood education is a high return/low risk investment.”Source: Michael J. Mandel, Ph.D., Former Chief Economist at BusinessWeek, at the 2010 Early Learning Investment Commission’s Economic Summit

  35. The Economic Benefits

  36. Vital Community Health & Infrastructure • Just as roads, sewer and water are needed for housing and business development, so too is child care. • 97% of community planners surveyed said that families are important to community growth, sustainability and diversity. • To attract families, a community needs access to quality, reliable early education.

  37. Reduction of Special Education Needs • Over 271,150 children in K-12 require special education services in 2009-2010. • Pennsylvania’s support of quality pre-k programs could save Pennsylvania $100 million in special education costs. In Pennsylvania, the average cost for special education per student is nearly $20,000 a year—110% more than typical education.

  38. Stronger Pennsylvania Workforce for today and tomorrow Children who have quality early education are more likely to have higher earnings.

  39. Because children who receive quality early education are more likely to graduate high school and college, they can more than double their earnings potential. Note: Data are 2009 annual averages for persons age 25 and over. Earnings are for full-time wage and salary workers. Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

  40. Savings on Corrections • Fight Crime Invest in Kids projects that high quality early learning could cut a quarter or more of the costs of corrections in Pennsylvania. Cutting a quarter of the $1.8 billion a year spent on corrections in Pennsylvania would eventually save $450 million a year. • Source: Fight Crime Invest in Kids Pennsylvania, • “Invest in Early Education Now, Spend Less on Prison Later,” 2009 Pennsylvania spends on average $35,000 a year per person in prison costs

  41. “For every $1 invested in early care and education in Pennsylvania, an additional $1.06 is generated for a total of $2.06 in new spending in the state. This strong economic boost for local businesses is higher than investments in other major sectors such as transportation, construction, wholesale trade, retail trade and manufacturing. Inversely, cuts to state early learning programs would hurt local businesses in Pennsylvania by eliminating $1.06 in additional new spending for every $1 cut.” • Source: Strengthening Pennsylvania Businesses through • Investments in Early Care and Education - How Investments • in Early Learning Increase Sales from Local Businesses, Create • Jobs and Grow the Economy, February 2011

  42. Job growth today Economic stimulus: Every dollar spent on early education generates $1.06 dollars in local economy through local hiring and purchasing goods and services. Job producer: For every 10 jobs created in early education sector, 3 more jobs created outside early education. Source: America’s Edge. “Strengthening Pennsylvania’s Business through Investments in Early Care and Education,” 2011

  43. "On the margin, if we're going to invest the next dollar in education and workforce development, we're going to see the highest return if that dollar's invested before children reach kindergarten." Source: Rob Grunewald, associate economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, 2007

  44. Future Economic Success • “The skills employers look for in quality employees, such as being team-oriented, literate and numerate, are capacities that are essentially shaped by age five. • A child’s early years provide a small window of opportunity for development. Once that window closes, it is much more difficult for children who are behind in their development to catch up.” • Source: Robert Dugger, managing partner of • Hanover Investment Group and co-founder of the • Partnership for America’s Economic Success

  45. Contributions to long-term economic growth • “Children who attend quality pre-kindergarten are more likely to be employed and have higher earnings, thus positively contributing to the tax base. Annual rates of return on preschool investments are estimated at 10 percent or higher each year over the students’ lifetimes, exceeding the 6 to 7 percent average rate of return typically expected of government programs and the stock market.” • Source: Committee for Economic Development, • “The Economic Promise of Investing in High Quality • Preschool,” 2006

  46. Long-term return on investment in early education Nobel Laureate James Heckman states the rate of return for quality early childhood education is 10% per year. This graph demonstrates that rates of return on human capital investment decrease with age, with the highest return on investments at preschool age (shaded in portion of the graph). (Heckman, 2008)

  47. Snapshot of the value of Pennsylvania’s early education: Birth to Five • Pennsylvania falls around the middle among U.S. states in investment in a quality early education system. • Nearly 36% of Pennsylvania’s children birth to age five are participating in publicly-funded quality early education.

  48. “The best investment in economic development that government and the private sector can make is in the healthy development of children.” Source: Art Rolnick, Ph.D, Senior Vice President and Director of Research at the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis

  49. The Office of Child Development and Early Learning(OCDEL)