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Corporate Social Responsibility. LECTURE 28: Corporate Social Responsibility MGT 610. Corporate Social Responsibility. Chapter 7 SUSTAINABILITY AND ITS CHALLENGES. Corporate Social Responsibility. LEARNING OBJECTIVES

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Corporate Social Responsibility


Corporate Social Responsibility

MGT 610


Corporate Social Responsibility



Corporate Social Responsibility


  • Understand capitalism and the relationship between capitalism and sustainability
  • Understand the efforts to measure sustainability
  • Know the difficulties faced in the implementation of measurement frameworks

Corporate Social Responsibility

  • Corporations must realize that CSR is not charity and cannot work on Robin Hood principle
    • Pseudo NGOs
    • Don’t make profits the mantra
    • Sustainability will become an issue if that is the case
      • Human subdued to business rather than the other way
    • Danger of profits becoming the only driving force as long as business remains within rules
      • Who makes the rules and who monitors?
    • CSR cannot remain philanthropy but has to be woven
  • Capitalism has to look beyond materialistic world towards the human aspect

Corporate Social Responsibility

  • Sustainability
    • Related to capitalism and urgent need to give growth a human face
    • Not easy to define as dependent upon various perceptions
    • Various definitions are
      • The word sustainability is derived from the Latin sustinere (tenere means to hold, sus means up)
      • Sustainable development is ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’ (WCED 1987).
      • ‘Finding a balance between economic prosperity, environmental quality, and—the element which business has tended to overlook—social justice, moves organizations in an absolute state of sustainability’ Elkington (1999).
      • ‘The sustainable society is one that lives within the self-perpetuating limits of its environment’ Coomer (1979).

Corporate Social Responsibility

  • Sustainability is measured through the lens of either social development and justice or human welfare and social justice
  • Because of this sustainability is a buzz word
    • However important as it is the dialogue of values that defies consensual definitions
  • Bruntland report
    • The Report of the Brundtland Commission, Our Common Future, was published by Oxford University Press in 1987, and was welcomed by the General Assembly Resolution
    • The document was the culmination of a “900 day” international-exercise which catalogued, analyzed, and synthesized: written submissions and expert testimony from “senior government representatives, scientists and experts, research institutes, industrialists, representatives of non-governmental organizations, and the general public” held at public hearings throughout the world.

Corporate Social Responsibility

The Brundtland Commission's mandate was to: “[1] re-examine the critical issues of environment and development and to formulate innovative, concrete, and realistic action proposals to deal with them; [2] strengthen international cooperation on environment and development and assess and propose new forms of cooperation that can break out of existing patterns and influence policies and events in the direction of needed change; and [3] raise the level of understanding and commitment to action on the part of individuals, voluntary organizations, businesses, institutes, and governments” (1987: 347). “The Commission focused its attention on the areas of population, food security, the loss of species and genetic resources, energy, industry, and human settlements - realizing that all of these are connected and cannot be treated in isolation one from another” (1987: 27).


Corporate Social Responsibility

The Brundtland Commission Report recognized that human resource development in the form of poverty reduction, gender equity, and wealth redistribution was crucial to formulating strategies for environmental conservation, and it also recognized that environmental-limits to economic growth in industrialized and industrializing societies existed. As such, the Report offered “[the] analysis, the broad remedies, and the recommendations for a sustainable course of development” within such societies (1987: 16). However, the Report was unable to identify the mode(s) of production that are responsible for degradation of the environment, and in the absence of analyzing the principles governing market-led economic growth, the Report postulated that such growth could be reformed (and expanded); this lack of analysis resulted in an obfuscated-introduction of the term sustainable development.


Corporate Social Responsibility

The report deals with sustainable development and the change of politics needed for achieving it. The definition of this term in the report is quite well known and often cited:

"Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". It contains two key concepts:

  • the concept of "needs", in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and
  • the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs."

Corporate Social Responsibility

Sustainability efforts

The three main pillars of sustainable development include economic growth, environmental protection, and social equality. While many people agree that each of these three ideas contribute to the overall idea of sustainability, it is difficult to find evidence of equal levels of initiatives for the three pillars in countries' policies worldwide. With the overwhelming number of countries that put economic growth on the forefront of sustainable development, it is evident that the other two pillars have been suffering, especially with the overall well being of the environment in a dangerously unhealthy state.


Corporate Social Responsibility

The Brundtland Commission has put forth a conceptual framework that many nations agree with and want to try to make a difference with in their countries, but it has been difficult to change these concepts about sustainability into concrete actions and programs. Implementing sustainable development globally is still a challenge, but because of the Brundtland Commission's efforts, progress has been made. After releasing their report, Our Common Future, the Brundtland Commission called for an international meeting to take place where more concrete initiatives and goals could be mapped out. This meeting was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A comprehensive plan of action, known as Agenda 21, came out of the meeting. Agenda 21 entailed actions to be taken globally, nationally, and locally in order to make life on Earth more sustainable going into the future.


Corporate Social Responsibility

Economic Growth

Economic Growth is the pillar that most groups focus on when attempting to attain more sustainable efforts and development. In trying to build their economies, many countries focus their efforts on resource extraction, which leads to unsustainable efforts for environmental protection as well as economic growth sustainability. While the Commission was able to help to change the association between economic growth and resource extraction, the total worldwide consumption of resources is projected to increase in the future. So much of the natural world has already been converted into human use that the focus cannot simply remain on economic growth and omit the ever growing problem of environmental sustainability. Agenda 21 reinforces the importance of finding ways to generate economic growth without hurting the environment. Through various trade negotiations such as improving access to markets for exports of developing countries, Agenda 21 looks to increase economic growth sustainability in countries that need it most.


Corporate Social Responsibility

Environmental Protection

Environmental Protection has become more important to government and businesses over the last 20 years, leading to great improvements in the number of people willing to invest in green technologies. For the second year in a row in 2010, the United States and Europe added more power capacity from renewable sources such as wind and solar. In 2011 the efforts continue with 45 new wind energy projects beginning in 25 different states. The focus on environmental protection has transpired globally as well, including a great deal of investment in renewable energy power capacity. Eco-city development occurring around the world helps to develop and implement water conservation, smart grids with renewable energy sources, LED street lights and energy efficient building. The consumption gap remains, consisting of the fact that "roughly 80 percent of the natural resources used each year are consumed by about 20 percent of the world's population". This level is striking and still needs to be addressed now and throughout the future


Corporate Social Responsibility

Social Equality

The Social Equality pillar of sustainable development focuses on the social well-being of people. The growing gap between incomes of rich and poor is evident throughout the world with the incomes of richer households increasing relative to the incomes of middle- or lower-class households. Global inequality has been declining, but the world is still extremely unequal, with the richest 1% of the world’s population owning 40% of the world’s wealth and the poorest 50% owning around 1%. The Brundtland Commission has made an impact in helping to reduce the number of people living on less than a dollar a day to just half of what it used to be, but this can also be attributed to growth in China and India


Corporate Social Responsibility

  • Brundtland Report
  • Sustainability development needs to have achievements targets or goals within a specific time frame
    • Certain illustration of such analysis can be seen in the three sets of goals that use different time-horizons: the short-term goals (2015) of the Millennium Declaration of the United Nations (see Annexure 2); the two-generation goals (2050) of the Sustain ability Transition of the Board on Sustainable Development; and the long-term goals (beyond 2050) of the Great Transition of the Global Scenario Group.

Corporate Social Responsibility

Corporations have to look beyond the bottom line if they want significant improvements in their bottom line


Corporate Social Responsibility

  • Integrating CSR in Organization: Guidelines to Effective Change
    • ISO 26000
    • Triple bottom line
    • Triple loop learning
  • ISO 26000
  • Business and organizations do not operate in a vacuum. Their relationship to the society and environment in which they operate is a critical factor in their ability to continue to operate effectively. It is also increasingly being used as a measure of their overall performance.
  • ISO 26000 provides guidance on how businesses and organizations can operate in a socially responsible way. This means acting in an ethical and transparent way that contributes to the health and welfare of society.