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INDUSTRIAL SAFETY & HEALTH. Presented by : MR. AMIR B. MOHAMED CIAST, SHAH ALAM SELANGOR. Kemalangan Industri. KEMALANGAN JALANRAYA MELIBATKAN KERETA DAN LORI KREN. Kemalangan Di Pejabat. ACCIDENT. RESULTS. HIGHER COST & LOWER PROFIT.

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slide1

INDUSTRIAL

SAFETY & HEALTH

Presented by :

MR. AMIR B. MOHAMED

CIAST, SHAH ALAM

SELANGOR

slide2

Kemalangan

Industri

slide3

KEMALANGAN JALANRAYA

MELIBATKAN KERETA DAN LORI KREN

slide4

Kemalangan

Di Pejabat

slide5

ACCIDENT

RESULTS

HIGHER COST & LOWER PROFIT

MONEY SPENT FOR ACCIDENT IS NOT LIKE MONEY SPENT FOR MATERIAL OR WAGES. THERE IS NO RETURN ON MONEY SPENT FOR ACCIDENT.

slide6

ACCIDENTS-THE CONSEQUENCES

IMMEDIATE

DEATH

INJURY

PAIN

DISEASE

DAMAGE

LOSS

FEAR

SHORT TERM

MEDICAL TREATMENT

REPAIRS

REPLACEMENTS

LOST PRODUCTION

INCREASED COSTS

DISCIPLINE

LOW MORALE

LONG TERM

SUFFERING

DISABILITY

LOST INCOME

INSURANCE

COMPENSATION

MISTRUST

MISSED TARGETS

PROFITABILITY

slide7

COST OF ACCIDENTS

VICTIM AND DEPENDENTS

Suffering

Effect on

sport & hobbies

Lost of earning

Continuing disability

Extra expenses

Effect on family

slide8

COST OF ACCIDENTS

SUPERVISOR

Worry

Loss prestige

Recrimination

Report, extra work, training new staff

slide9

COST OF ACCIDENTS

SECTION OR DEPARTMENT

Capacity

to

produce

Morale

slide10

COST OF ACCIDENTS

FIRM OR ORGANISATION

Loss of earning

Loss in paying

in legal action

Compensation

Penalty

Damage to

the equipment

and materials

Extra insurance

premium

Lost of client

slide11

COST OF ACCIDENTS

NATION

Loss of

income in

a form of

income tax

Loss of

morale

slide12

ACCIDENT COSTS ICEBERG

  • Medical (covering injury, ill health)
  • Compensation

INSURED

COSTS (1)

  • Building damage
  • Tool, equipment, material, product damage
  • Production delays and interruptions
  • Legal expenses
  • Expenditure on emergency first aid supplies
  • Interim equipment rentals
  • Investigation time/clearing site
  • Wages paid for time lost
  • Costs hiring and/or training replacements
  • Overtime working
  • Extra supervisor time
  • Loss of expertise/experience
  • Decreased output of injured worker upon return
  • Loss of business and goodwill

THE

HIDDEN

UNINSURED

COSTS

(8 – 36

as much as

insured costs)

slide13

THE BIRD THEORY (USA-1969)

THE HEINRICH THEORY (USA-1931)

SERIOUS / FATAL

1

SERIOUS / FATAL

1

THE TYE/PEARSON THEORY (UK-1974/75)

MINOR INJURIES

10

MINOR INJURIES

29

PROPERTY DAMAGE

30

NON-INJURY

300

SERIOUS / FATAL

1

NON-INJURY

600

MINOR INJURIES

(1 TO 3 DAYS MC)

3

FIRST-AID INJURIES

50

PROPERTY DAMAGE

80

NON-INJURY / DAMAGE

400

ACCIDENT RATIO STUDIES

slide14

ACCIDENT

AN UNPLANNED EVENT WHICH

RESULTS IN UNACCEPTABLE

CONSEQUENCES

AN UNDESIREABLE EVENT WHICH INTERRUPTS NORMAL ACTIVITY

slide15

ACCIDENT

“An unexpected, unplanned event in sequence of events, that occurs through a combination of causes. It results in injury or disease

to an individual, damage

to property or equipment,

a near-miss, a loss or any

combination of these effects”.

slide16

Workers, unions and employees don’t

always agree on why accident happen.

Workers may say that the workplace is :

HAZARDOUS * UNSAFE * DANGEROUS * BADLY ORGANISED

THE WORKPLACE IS TO BLAME.

WHY DO ACCIDENTS HAPPEN ?

slide17

THE WORKER IS TO BLAME.

WHY DO ACCIDENTS HAPPEN ?

Employers sometimes say that the worker is :

CARELESS * RECKLESS * SILLY * ACCIDENT PRONE

* STUBBORN * INCONSIDERATE * IGNORANT

slide18

HAS BLAMING EACH OTHER SOLVED THE PROBLEM ?

NO, AS CAN BE SEEN FROM THE ACCIDENT FIGURES.

WHY DO ACCIDENTS HAPPEN ?

Some accidents may be due to human errors.

But the work environment must recognise that the workers

are human and sometimes make mistakes – this must be

acknowledged during workplace design.

Employers can improve the workplace so that stress,

fatigue and poor working conditions do not

cause mistakes.

slide19

DIRECTLY INVOLVED

INDIRECTLY INVOLVED

  • Fault with the

original design of a

piece of equipment.

  • Inappropriate

purchasing decisions.

  • Behavior of fellow

individuals in the

workplace.

  • Fatigue
  • Stress
  • Taking shorts cut
  • Lack of experience
  • Lack of training
  • Lack of concentration
  • Not wearing

appropriate PPE

  • Using incorrect tool
  • Not following work

practices

CAUSE OF ACCIDENT

THE HUMAN FACTOR

slide20

CAUSE OF ACCIDENT

UNSAFE ACTS OF PERSON

  • Operating without clearance/failure to secure or warn.
  • Operating or working at unsafe speed.
  • Making safety devices inoperative.
  • Using unsafe equipment or equipment unsafely.
  • Unsafe loading, placing, mixing, combining, etc.
  • Taking unsafe position of posture.
  • Working on moving of dangerous equipment.
  • Distracting, teasing, abusing, startling,

etc.

  • Failure to use safe attire or personal

protective devices.

slide21

CAUSE OF ACCIDENT

UNSAFE PHYSICAL CONDITIONS

  • Inadequately guarded, guards of improper height, strength, mesh, etc.
  • Unguarded absence of required guards.
  • Defective, rough, sharp, slippery, decayed, cracked, etc.
  • Unsafely designed machines, tools, etc.
  • Unsafely arranged, poor housekeeping, congestion, blocked exits, etc.
  • Inadequately lighted, sources of glare, etc.
  • Inadequately ventilated impure air sources, etc.
  • Unsafely clothed, no goggles, gloves, masks,

wearing high heels, etc.

  • Unsafe processes, mechanical, chemical,

electrical, nuclear, etc.

slide25

ACCIDENT CAUSATION THEORIES

HEINRICH (1930’s)

Emphasis for prevention on unsafe acts/condition.

Approach can lead to blaming the worker when management system is at faults (prone worker approach).

FIVE FACTORS/STAGES IN THE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS;

1. ANCESTRY / SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT.

2. FAULT OF A PERSON

3. UNSAFE ACTS / CONDITION

4. ACCIDENT

5. INJURY

slide26

ACCIDENT CAUSATION THEORIES

MULTIPLE CAUSATION THEORY

More that one cause to any accident.

The multicauses is equivalent to the third stage in the Heinrich theory.

Heinrich made reference to “Underlying causes”. What were these cause.

Using 5W, 1H.

slide27

THE ACCIDENT HIERARCHY

MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

ROOT CAUSE

WORK ACTIVITIES

OPERATING RULES

VIOLATIONS

MISTAKES

DIRECT CAUSE

ACCIDENTS

slide28

MANAGEMENT

Through Supervision

Controls

MAN FAILURE

Knowledge, Attitude, Fitness, Ability

Which Causes or Permits

UNSAFE ACTS OF PERSONS

88%

UNSAFE MECHANICAL OR PHYSICAL CONDITIONS

10%

INEXPLICABLE

2%

Which Cause

ACCIDENTS

2% are unpreventable

50% are practically preventable

98% are of a preventable type

THE ACCIDENT STUDIES

slide29

SAFETY

AWARENESS

slide30

SAFETY

Safety is absence of danger.

Safety is an attitude, a frame of mind.

It is the awareness of one’s environment and actions, all day, everyday. To do this does not require genius, a PhD, or even a title or rank.

Safety is knowing what is going on; knowing what can injure anyone or anything; knowing how to prevent that injury and then acting to prevent it. All it requires is intelligence and a reasonable amount of native ability to see, to hear, to smell and to think.

slide31

WHAT IS SAFETY AWARENESS?

  • Safety Awareness means ;
  • being able to recognise unsafe practices and conditions. It

requires following safety procedures.

  • getting to know all you can about the conditions that

promote safety, including emergency response procedures.

  • signifies you to willingness to take time to prevent accident.
  • having the right attitude about safety, both your own and

your coworker’s safety.

  • can help prevent injury, illness and accidental damage to

company property.

  • being on the lookout for unsafe practices and conditions in

your work area.

slide32

WHAT IS SAFETY AWARENESS?

Safety Awareness is all about understanding the need to prevent avoidable accidents and there are three compelling reasons why every organisation and every individual MUST accept accident prevention as vital element of all activity in the workplace.

slide33

Humanitarian

An accident can lead to a change of lifestyle that can be for an individual and often for a whole family.

slide34

Economic

Organisation face loss

absenteeism, higher accident compensation premium

Hidden cost of accidents

stopped production, spoilage of material, damage to plant and equipment, replacement of staff, training & re-training, re-tooling, re-designing

slide35

Social Security payments to

people injured in accidents,

but not adequately covered

by other insurance.

  • Aid to dependent families

where income falls below

a minimum level.

  • Payments to legal personnel relating to court

proceedings.

  • Preparation and issuance of laws standards and

regulations and their administration.

Legal

slide36

SAFETY TIPS

EMPLOYER

Set OSH policy and committee.

Allocate budget for OSH programmed and activities.

Fulfill the need of OSH Legislation.

Ensure all employees understand the related OSH

programmed and activities.

Training for OSH commitment.

Yield – analyses the achievement for improvement.

S

A

F

E

T

Y

slide37

SAFETY TIPS

EMPLOYEE

Search all hazards at workplace.

Assess the potential risk.

Find the control measures.

Exercise and make it habit.

Take part on OSH programmed and activities.

Yell for commitment.

S

A

F

E

T

Y

slide38

Sekian

Terima Kasih