Chapter 8 Recruitment, Selection and Retention
Learning Objectives • Understand the major steps and decisions involved in designing and implementing a recruitment effort • Discuss the factors considered by people in deciding to accept a job offer • Describe he relationship of requirements to other human resources management functions • Design a recruitment and selection effort for a particular job
Learning Objectives • Address the advantages and disadvantages of internal and external recruitment and other sources of job applicants • Explain the concepts of person – organization fit and its relevance to recruitment and selection • Offer alternative selection tools and how they can be used in the selection process • Articulate the concept of validity in the use of selection tools • Indentify the most important factors related to turnover and retention and strategies that can improve retention.
Recruitment • The Factors that Influence Job Choice • Applicant • Applicant own competiveness. • First impression (usually the recruiter). • Applicants consider if this is a place that can work for many years. • See article “Recruiting Tips from Cisco” • Employer • Employers go through a similar process in selection as the applicant
Recruitment • Applicants want to work for organizations that share their own beliefs • Employers want applicant who chare their own beliefs
Recruitment • Individual Characteristics • These are personal issues that influence a persons decision • IE: life stage, family • Vacancy Characteristics • These are issues associated with the job • IE: salary, responsibility, advancement opportunity
Recruitment • Compensation • Studies show that compensation is a complex topic when it comes to recruitment • Money may encourage someone to leave • Money may encourage someone to stay
Recruitment • Responsibility • The amount of responsibility is another factor to consider • Studies show that professionals tend to seek out jobs that grant them greater responsibility. • Job Security • Applicants will consider stability when selecting a job • The healthcare market is undergoing many mergers and acquisitions that may shake applicants confidence.
Recruitment • The Recruitment Process • The recruiter – needs to have a full understanding as to the needs of the open positions. • External Environment – An examination of the external environment should be conducted to ascertain available applicants and competition. • Review Past Recruitment Efforts – look to similar position to determine the best course of action.
Recruitment • Expenses • Recruitment can be very costly!! • Advertising • Agency Fees • Staff time • Processing costs • Travel / Lodging • Training • Orientation
Recruitment • Recruitment Sources • Early in the process you should identify where you will look for applicants • Internal • Pros – may improve morale, greater assessment of abilities, may be faster, motivator for current employees • Cons – conflict among internal candidates, may cause ripple effect in vacancies, possible morale problem • External • Pros – Brings new ideas, may be less expensive, comes with not ties to the organization • Cons – may identify technical skills but does not fit into the organization, moral problems by non-selected internal candidates
Recruitment • The Peter Principle • This is a common phenomenon in which successful employees are promoted until they reach one position above their level of competency • This is common in healthcare where staff who are good clinicians are promoted to supervisory positions.
Recruitment • Content of the Recruitment Message • Applicant Qualification • Job Basics • Application process • Organization and Department Basics
Recruitment • Evaluating the Recruitment • Quantity of Applicants • Quality of Applicants • Overall Recruitment Cost and Cost Per Applicant • Diversity of Applicants • Recruitment time or time to fill
Selection • The Question of Fit • This is the process of ensuring the applicant values match those of the organization • This may mean that the selection process should not always be based on concrete data • Organizations should be careful that “fit” also produces quality job performance
Selection • Organization Culture Profile • This is used to test an applicant will fit in the organization • Very labor intensive to use • It is important that an organization ensure that is selections criteria adapts to the change in organizational culture over time.
Selection • Job Requirements and Selection Tool • Selection tools – refers to any procedure or system used • The use of a selection tool should be based on a full range knowledge of the job requirements • Critical Incidents Analysis – This is a process for discovering hidden or less formal aspects of job performance • This should be done by individuals who are experts in the job • Job expert should identify good and poor performance of the job • Brake the job down into similar “dimensions”
Selection • Reliability and Validity of the Selection Tool • Criterion Related Validity – the extent a selection tool is related to job performance • Concurrent Strategies – this is used to test the reliability of the selection tool by using the tool on current employees • Predictive Validity – This is used on a group of job applicants. Over time you are able to gather data regarding the tool. • Content Validity – the extent to which the tool represents sample content of the job. If sufficient enough of job content are present the tool is valid
Selection • Reference Checks • 87% of HR directors use reference checks. • Studies test the validity of reference checks. • Researchers used inter-rater reliability for different respondents for references. • The reliability factor of references is relatively poor!! • Reliability improves if: • It is the most recent employer • The reference giver had adequate time to review the applicant • Job functions are similar
Selection • Job Interviews • Often this has the greatest weight in the hiring process • Typically, interview have low reliability • Why? – candidates are not given the questions in advance and are not able to prepare. This is not how the applicant would work in the organization
Selection • Unstructured Interviews • Tend to be very subjective and less reliable • However, it allows the interviewers free rein, potentially making the interview more effective. • Structured Interviews • Usually based on job requirements • Allow interviewers to determine quality of performance • Allow interviewers to score applicants.
Selection • Applications and Resumes • Contain basic information about the applicant • May misrepresent qualifications • To reduce this, ask applicants to complete an addendum that is specific to the job. • This allow the applicant to highlight specific knowledge or experience.
Selection • Ability and Aptitude Tests • These test several areas including: • Personality • Honesty • Integrity • Cognitive Reasoning • Fine Motor Coordination Tests • For reliability, it is important to ensure the tests are actually representative of the job.
Selection • Assessment Centers • This is a center that administer a series of assessment procedures and has them professionally scored • There is a high correlation between the use of assessment centers and job performance
Turnover and Retention • Growth in demand for nurses will outpace the supply!! • A nurse shortage will be experienced • The shortage is not cyclical but chronic
Turnover and Retention • Turnover v. Retention • Turnover – a ration that tells the summary of gross movement in and out of the organization. (See Article “How to Reduce Turnover” and “Want to Keep Your Best -Keep ‘Em Interested”) • Retention – looks a specific individuals and the length of time they have been there. (See Article “How to Reduce Turnover” and “Motivation Expert Bob Nelson on Keeping Workers Interested”)
Turnover and Retention • Studies on Nursing Turnover • The average annual turnover rate for hospital workers is 20%. • RN’s and LPN’s turnover rate in Nursing Home is about 50% • Dissatisfaction is the leading cause of nurse turnover • Lack of decision making ability, problems with supervisors, poor work conditions, inadequate compensation, job security
Turnover and Retention • Retention Strategies • It is important to develop a culture of retention • Managers should emphasis sincere caring for their staff • Retention is not only influences by just the organizations efforts. The market still drive turnover • Compensation and job structure are motivator for retention (See the article “Firms Let Sleeping Dogs Lie at Office”) • Implement strong leaders. People quit their supervisors not their job