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BELLWORK. In 3-5 sentences, explain how the League of Nations operated. (members, structure, decisions, punishment, etc.) Why did the League use sanctions? Do you think this is an effective form of punishment?
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BELLWORK • In 3-5 sentences, explain how the League of Nations operated. (members, structure, decisions, punishment, etc.) • Why did the League use sanctions? Do you think this is an effective form of punishment? • Even though the LofN was President Wilson’s idea, the U.S. does not join….why? How did this weaken the League? • Besides the U.S., which other nations were excluded from the League? Why? • Analyze the documents on page 91 – what are the most significant problems caused by the absence of major powers? • Describe the attempts made by France to strengthen the League. Why did these attempts fail? • THINKER: What similarities do you see between the League of Nations and the United Nations? Are there similar problems?
Successes/Failures of the League • With a partner, analyze the list of disputes on page 93. • List which ones could be considered successes and which ones were failures. • Are there any common factors that help explain the successes and failures?
The Failure of Collective Security A League working together to promote security or an alliance of victors???
Group Activity – Failures of the League • Today, the class will be divided into five groups. Each group will be assigned a different crisis that showed the failure of “collective security” and ineffectiveness of the League. • Your task: Read/research your crisis and organize a presentation to teach the class • Ruhr Crisis • The Locarno Era • Manchurian Incident • Abyssinian Crisis • Failure of Disarmament • You may make reference to the reading – pictures, documents, graphs, etc. • As you present, the class will fill in the note sheet, so make sure all points are addressed!
The Ruhr Crisis - 1923 • In your opinion, what should the League have done to prevent this crisis?
Ratified 10/26/23 Signed by Germany and Soviet Union Introduced diplomatic relations and pledged future cooperation Denounced reparations Close economic cooperation Included Germany’s relations with Soviet republics – Ukraine, Belarus, Armenia, & Georgia. Military cooperation allowed Germany to rearm and train secretly in Russia Made Allies more determined to win over Germany Failure of League to prevent alliances Chancellor of Germany Joseph Wirth (2nd from left) with Krassin, Georgi Chicherin and Joffe from the Russian delegation The Rapallo Treaty - 1922
From left to right, Gustav Stresemann (Germany), Austen Chamberlain (England) and Aristide Briand (France) during the Locarno negotiations The Locarno Conference - 1925
Three Plans = Possible Diplomacy? • Dawes Plan (1924) – US economist Charles Dawes produced a report on German reparations: • Reparations guaranteed by German railways and industries • US reparations agent would reside in Germany • Payments were reduced • Young Plan (1929) – Attempt to redress some of the problems of Dawes Plan: • Reduced total sum to be repaid by Germany • Set date for completion of payments – 1988 • Continued US involvement in reparation payments • Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) – Secretary of State William Kellogg and French Foreign Minister Aristide Briand • Said war was NOT an instrument of national policy • War is NOT a solution encouraged diplomacy • Signed by 62 of the 64 invited countries (Brazil & Argentina declined)
The Manchurian Incident - 1932 • In your opinion, what should the League have done to prevent this crisis?
Abyssinian Crisis - 1935 Emperor Selassie inspecting troops prepared for the invasion
The Abyssinian Crisis - 1935 • In your opinion, what should the League have done to prevent this crisis?
Washington Conference – 1921 London Naval Conference – 1930 London Naval Treaty – 1936 Geneva Disarmament Conference – 1932 Scrapping Battleships Failure of Disarmament
Review • With a partner, list FIVE main reasons the League of Nations failed. Then, rank them from 1 – 5 (1 is the biggest problem!) • Be ready to discuss!