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Unconventional Petrophysical Analysis in Unconventional Reservoirs

Unconventional Petrophysical Analysis in Unconventional Reservoirs

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Unconventional Petrophysical Analysis in Unconventional Reservoirs

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  1. Unconventional Petrophysical Analysis in Unconventional Reservoirs Putting the Puzzle Together in Gas Shales Lee Utley

  2. “Intuitively, it is my belief that this magnitude of money could be better spent on other projects.” Executive with Mitchell Energy in his recommendation for attempting the first completion in the Barnett Shale ‘discovery’ well (Slay #1) - 1982

  3. “Why are we spending all this money to find out how much gas is in the Barnett? If we really want to know what will happen in Johnson County, we just need to drill some damn wells! Engineering executive with Mitchell Energy upon finding out the magnitude of our planned spending on coring and analysis to reevaluate the gas content of the Barnett - 1999

  4. Introduction

  5. Has this happened to you? Somebody just dumped some stuff in your office Large stack of logs Several CDs/DVDs of digital data Core reports Several maps and cross-sections You are told that your company wants to get into this Barnett Shale play everyone is talking about so you need to figure this out.

  6. Problems

  7. General Goals • Areal extent • Thickness • Type of hydrocarbon • Possible production mechanisms • Barriers to economic production Evaluate the resource

  8. Specific Goals to Achieve Using Log Analysis • Gas Content • Analysis of ‘conventional’ formations • Maturity • Total Organic Content • Porosity • Water saturation • Lithology • Rock Properties • Fracture types

  9. Why is this so hard to do? • Old logs with limited information • Little or no core data • Complex lithologies cause problems with typical methods • TOC calculation is difficult at best • Porosity determination is complicated by presence of TOC

  10. Useful Core Data • Geochemical analysis (Ro, TOC, etc…) • Porosity • Water saturation • Gas content (including adsorption isotherm information) • Mechanical properties

  11. Gas Content

  12. Gas Storage Sites • Sorption – TOC • Pore space • Open natural fractures Most gas is stored in the pore space and the TOC. Fracture storage is usually minimal and probably can’t be quantified.

  13. Calculation of Gas Content • For sorption, relate TOC to gas content – usually through Langmuir parameters. • Don’t forget about non-methane adsorption • For pore space, use conventional gas-in-place equations. TOC and porosity are two of the biggest keys in looking at gas shales.

  14. ‘Conventional’ Analysis

  15. Why look at ‘conventional’ areas • Production pathways • ‘Unfavorable’ porosity • Stimulation barriers • Uphole ‘bail-out’ zones

  16. Maturity

  17. Log Indicators of Maturity • Resistivity • Density – Neutron Separation Use averages of these values in very well defined geologically correlative areas to compare to core vitrinite reflectance data.

  18. Use resistivity as a predictor (OGJ – Morel – 1999)

  19. 1940’s 1980’s Modern Use Old Resistivity Logs Too • Use resistivity inversion modeling to get old ES logs and induction logs up to modern standards – compare apples to apples

  20. Density – Neutron Separation Gas Shale Well Two Higher Vitrinite Reflectance Gas Shale Well One Lower Vitrinite Reflectance

  21. TOC

  22. Four main methods • Use average TOC from published accounts and apply it to every well • Density log regression • Delta log R • Passey, et al – AAPG 1990 • Neural Networks

  23. Porosity

  24. Standard Porosity Transform • Core matrix numbers exclude organic material. • Normal log presentations show very high apparent porosities. These porosities are closer to the volume of pore space and organic material combined.

  25. Basic Porosity Equation Fluid contribution Rock contribution

  26. Porosity Equation with TOC Rock contribution Fluid contribution TOC contribution

  27. Solved for Porosity

  28. Water Saturation

  29. What are the correct parameters? ? R a = w S n w f m R t

  30. Pickett Plot

  31. Calculate Water Saturation

  32. Lithology

  33. Two most common methods • Probabilistic methodology • Integrated neural network solution

  34. Neural Network Solution

  35. Rock Properties

  36. Standard Rock Mechanic Equations

  37. Use Lithology to Correlate with Rock Properties Neural Network of Young’s Modulus in Two Permian Basin wells using a Fort Worth Basin Model Rock Properties Computed Young’s Modulus Neural Network Computed Young’s Modulus

  38. Fractures

  39. Imaging Logs • Fracture Size • Direction(s) • Complexity • Open/Closed • Induced fracture direction (stress field)

  40. Barnett Shale Case Study

  41. Core Data Acquired Conventional and pressure cores – Extensive data suite • Porosity • Water Saturation • TOC • XRD • Canister desorption • Adsorption isotherms • Capillary pressures • CEC

  42. Integrate Core Data

  43. Train a Volumetric Neural Network

  44. Apply integrated solution to all wells

  45. Fort Worth Model Applied to Permian Basin Well

  46. Comparison

  47. Conclusions

  48. Gas shales can be effectively analyzed • Maturity, TOC, and porosity are some of the keys to gas shale analysis and can be determined from logs. • Even without extensive core data, gas shales can still be analyzed, at least in a relative sense. • Other gas shales can be evaluated from log data and core data using these techniques. An integrated study is required for full evaluation.

  49. Unconventional Petrophysical Analysis in Unconventional Reservoirs Putting the Puzzle Together in Gas Shales Lee Utley