Unconventional Rod Nelson Schlumberger IPAA 75th Annual Meeting Oct 28, 2004
What is Conventional? • Finding and producing oil and gas at “great” depths? • Producing hydrocarbons safely in “deep” water? • Drilling extended reach horizontal wells? • Purposely producing coal bed methane? • Isn’t it only Unconventional until we understand things better?
Unconventional Thinking • Creating an unconventional team to look at an old problem • Work on the right wells • Understanding the reservoir at a whole new level • Finding novel ways or smarter places to apply new or existing technology
Historical Development Plot Shows When Wells Were Drilled and Quality of Wells
Dry Holes Quickly Highlight Better and Poorer Parts of the Study Area Best year Mcf/month
New wells better than old wells New wells worse than old wells Depletion Indicator Map
Re-Frac Candidate Identification— a Better Workflow Fracture treatment designed to achieve production improvement Production simulator confirms transient analysis and estimates re-frac potential Re-Frac Post fracture pressure-history match provides an estimate of fracture geometry Transient production analysis provides an estimate of frac geometry and permeability
Understanding Tight Reservoirs—at a New Level • Can we get pressure measurements where we could not before? • Can we reduce the risk of tool sticking and minimize operating time? • Can we avoid fracturing depleted zones and maximize the production and value of the treatment dollars?
PressureXpress Advisor We Can and in One Run in The Hole The PressureXpress service • is combinable with almost all Schlumberger openhole services • measures reservoir pressure and fluid mobilities, even those as lowas 0.01 mD/cp. The PressureXpress Advisor* grades zones according to their suitability for testing using Platform Express log data.
PressureXpress in Tight Gas • Tight gas reservoir, South Texas • PressureXpress was combined with the Platform Express and CMR-Plus* logging tools to identify depleted zones • 8 successful pressure tests out of 8 attempted • Mobilities ranging from 0.01–2.85 mD/cp 46 seconds “Significant savings in rig and testing times … excellent tool for high-density drilling areas. I can get pressures from low-perm gas (zones) that I would never have attempted before.”
Depleted Zones Normal pressure gradient PressureXpress Optimizes Completion • Depleted reservoir with high overbalance • Well penetrated 10 producing zones • 56 successful pressure tests out of 58 attempted • Mobilities ranging from 0.01–14.5 mD/cp • PressureXpress and Platform Express data used as input for PowerSTIM* fracturing design • Fracture stimulation optimized to 4 stages • Production increased 50% compared to similar wells in which pressure data was not obtained “We saved over $400,000 on the completion of this well.”
Better frac jobs thru RT monitoring Better Application of New and Existing Technology to Improve Efficiency • What is microseismicity? • Pressure/stress changes induce fracturing, resulting in microseismic signals. • How is it recorded? • Passive monitoring with wireline geophone array detects low-level induced micro earthquakes. • What information is produced? • Database of location, sequence, size and mechanism of the fracturing. • Applications • Visual-stage by stage fracture geometry • Calibrated fracture design models • Enhanced well performance • Improved NPV, ROI, F&D via optimized reservoir planning/development
27% 40% 25% StimMap and PowerStim
A Cumulative Production A B B C D C D Fracture Geometry vs Reservoir Performance
CBM The “Unconventional” prize is large…500+TCF TGS Shale SAH97.165
Unconventional Thinking—Conclusions • The US has a vast resource base still to be developed • Recovery rates even in gas reservoirs are too low • Keys include • Working on the right wells • Understanding the reservoir at a whole new level • Finding novel ways or smarter places to apply new or existing technology • There is a role for the service companies to develop and deploy cost effective, innovative solutions to unconventional problems