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Direct Behavioral Assessment: What to Record and How. Chapter 21. Overview. Characteristics of behavior to assess Methods of assessment Ensuring accuracy. Direct Assessment. Behaviors directly observed Advantage: More accurate than indirect assessment Disadvantages: Time consuming

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Presentation Transcript
overview
Overview
  • Characteristics of behavior to assess
  • Methods of assessment
  • Ensuring accuracy
direct assessment
Direct Assessment
  • Behaviors directly observed
  • Advantage:
    • More accurate than indirect assessment
  • Disadvantages:
    • Time consuming
    • Observers need to be trained
    • Cannot monitor covert behaviors
characteristics to consider
Characteristics to Consider
  • Topography
  • Amount
  • Intensity
  • Stimulus control
  • Latency
  • Quality
1 topography
1. Topography
  • The form of a particular response
    • Physical appearance or movement involved with the response
  • Can use various methods to help visualize and record
2 amount
2. Amount
  • Measured by frequency and duration
  • Frequency
    • Number of instances a behavior occurs in a given period of time
    • Rate
  • Duration
    • How long a behavior lasts
    • Relative Duration
      • Length of time a behavior occurs within some period
graphs
Graphs
  • Frequency Graph
    • Each data point represents total number of instances of behavior in that time period
  • Cumulative Graph
    • Each data point represents a total number of responses up to that point
3 intensity
3. Intensity
  • Force of a response
  • Use various devices to measure force
    • Pitching
    • Strength
4 stimulus control
4. Stimulus Control
  • Behavior occurs in the presence of certain stimuli and not others
  • High correlation between occurrence of stimuli and response?
5 latency
5. Latency
  • Amount of time between stimulus and response
    • How long before you respond
    • Ex: Alarm clock
6 quality
6. Quality
  • How well an activity is performed
    • Arbitrary designation of one or more of characteristics of behavior
    • Good student?
    • Good athlete?
percentage
Percentage
  • How many in a group respond
  • Evaluating group treatment
  • EX: safe sex practice
strategies for recording behavior
Strategies for Recording Behavior
  • Continuous recording
    • Recording every instance in a specified time segment
  • Interval recording
    • Specify block of time
    • Divide time into equal short intervals
    • Does behavior occur or not during interval?
    • Partial-interval recording
      • Most frequently used
      • Behavior recorded a maximum of once during interval
    • Whole-interval recording
      • Only record if occurs over entire interval
strategies for recording behavior1
Strategies for Recording Behavior
  • Time-sampling recording
    • Interval recording
    • Intervals are separated by longer periods of time
  • Momentary time sampling
    • Record if behavior occurs at specific points in time
accuracy of observations
Accuracy of Observations
  • Sources of Error
    • Response definition too vague or unclear
    • Observational situation makes observations difficult
    • Poor training of observer
    • Poorly designed data sheets
  • Interobserver reliability (IOR)
    • Do ratings of different observers agree?