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Clinical Assessment of Children. Chapter 1 Introduction . Basic Concepts. Testing versus Assessment Assessment to measure progress Assessment to measure achievement Assessment for determining strengths and weaknesses - academic - behavioral. Describing people with differences.

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clinical assessment of children

Clinical Assessment of Children

Chapter 1


basic concepts
Basic Concepts
  • Testing versus Assessment
  • Assessment to measure progress
  • Assessment to measure achievement
  • Assessment for determining strengths and weaknesses

- academic

- behavioral

describing people with differences
Describing people with differences
  • Labeling - used to identify people who differ from the accepted norm.
    • Disability- a loss of physical, academic, or social functioning that interferes with typical growth and development.
    • Handicap- a limitation imposed on the individual by environmental demands; an ability to adapt or adjust to these demands.
    • Exceptional - an individual who substantially deviates, either higher or lower, from the norm
why are labels still used
Why are labels still used?
  • To distinguish those who are eligible for services from those who are not.
    • Funding may be dependant upon the number and types of individuals who are deemed eligible.
  • Labels help professionals communicate
who receives special education



Developmental delay (3-9)

Emotional disturbance

Hearing impaired

Mental retardation

Multiple disabilities

Orthopedic impairment

Speech or language impairment

Specific learning disability

Other health impairments

Traumatic brain injury

Visual impairment

Who Receives Special Education?

Traditional Assessment Model

General Education Classroom Instruction

Student Not Progressing As Expected

Student Referred to Multidisciplinary Team

Team Completes Assessment

Team Meeting Determines Student

Found Eligible for Services

difficulties with traditional assessment practices
Difficulties With Traditional Assessment Practices
  • Lack of Prereferral Interventions
  • Lack of Integrity of Prereferral Interventions
  • Bias in Referral Process
  • Bias in Assessment Process
  • Lack of Consistency in Eligibility Decisions

Contemporary Assessment Model

General Classroom Instruction with Frequent Measurements

And Statewide Assessments

Student Not Making Progress

General Education Teacher Assesses Skill/Task Using

Frequent Measurements, Probes, Error Analysis of Student

Products and Performance

Interventions Implemented by Classroom Teacher


Interventions Not Successful

General Classroom Teacher Meets with Problem-Solving Team

Team Members Analyze Data and Generate Hypotheses

Teacher and Team Design Additional Interventions

Interventions Implemented and Monitored for Integrity

Teacher Takes Frequent Measurements and/or Observations

Student Continues to Have

Difficulty with Academic

Progress and/or Behavior

Interventions Successful

Student Continues in

General Classroom


Team Meets to Analyze Data

Team Determines if Additional Assessment is Needed or

Additional Interventions

Additional Interventions

Implemented and

Monitored for Integrity

Team Designs



Interventions Successful

Student Remains in General


Student Receives

Comprehensive Evaluation


Team Meets to Determine Student’s Needs

Student Receives Accommodations for Educational and/or

Behavioral Needs

Interventions Monitored for Success

Student Found Eligible for Special Education Support

Receives Services in General Education Classroom or

Special Education Setting

Interventions Monitored for Success


Types of Assessment

Ecological Assessment-Evaluation of

classroom variables to determine

possible classroom environmental

influences of learning or behavior


Norm-referenced Assessment-

Tests designed to compare a specific

student’s ability with the ability with

that of same age students in

national sample.


Criterion-referenced Tests- To assess a

student's progress in skill mastery

against specific standards


Standardized Assessment-Tests

given with specific instructions and

procedures, often norm-referenced.

Error Analysis-Evaluation student work to determine a

pattern of errors or specific

type of errors


Curriculum-Based Assessment-To

determine how student is performing using

actual content of curriculum such as chapter

tests or teacher made tests.

Curriculum-Based Measurement-

Specific techniques to measure progress of

a specific skill against an aim line.


Dynamic Assessment-Interactive

assessment to determine of

student has potential to learn a new skill.

Portfolio Assessment-Using a variety of

student products to evaluate

progress over time in specific area.


Checklists, Rating Scales,


A variety of measures used to determine

student's skill level or behavioral functioning.