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Coral Nutrition

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  1. Coral Nutrition Coral polyp eating marine worm

  2. Heterotrophy Versus Autotrophy

  3. Heterotrophic Nutrition • General feeding modes: • predaceous carnivores capturing live prey • detritus feeding • absorption of dissolved organic matter from surrounding water

  4. Heterotrophic Nutrition • Heterotrophic Feeding Methods: • Tentacles capturing prey • Suspension feeding and trap particles with mucus • Feed by mesentery filaments The majority of hermatypic and ahermatypic corals feed on plankton or DOM

  5. Heterotrophic Nutrition • Active predation: • Tentacles capture prey • Found mostly on those that rely on heterotrophic food sources • Hermatypic corals have smaller tentacles and small polyps • Tentacles usually extend at night and retract during the day

  6. Polyp Anatomy Revisited

  7. Coral Polyp Anatomy

  8. Nematocyst • True nematocysts • Spirocysts • Ptychocytes

  9. Nematocyst Discharge http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Tp38DUjUnM

  10. Stimulus for Nematocyst Discharge • Mechanical stimulus. • Chemical stimulus (e.g., amino acids) lowers the threshold for mechanical stimulus.

  11. Feeding in Hydra

  12. Feeding in Hydra

  13. Feeding in Hydra

  14. Feeding in Hydra

  15. Feeding Response in Fungia http://reefkeeping.com/issues/2007-05/atj/index.php

  16. Mesenterial Filaments

  17. Fungiascutaria CiliaryMucoid Feeding

  18. CiliaryMucoid Feeding

  19. Coral Slime- Mucoid Feeding • zooxanthellae produce lots of carbs • excess is trapped in mucus produced by coral and expelled (DOM) • DOM feed on by other orgs • May be a food source for symbionts or to clean sediment off coral

  20. Sediment Clearing

  21. Sediment Clearing

  22. Sediment Clearing http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=19ytYeqvTBc

  23. Autotrophic Nutrition

  24. Photosynthesis 6H2O + 6CO2 + light  C6H12O6 + 6O2

  25. Aerobic Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 + energy

  26. Zooxanthellae in Gastrodermal Cells of Corals

  27. Zooxanthellae:Symbiodiniummicroadriacticum

  28. Zooxanthellae in Planula

  29. Transmission of Zooxanthellae into Host Tissues • Maternal (direct) transmission. • Environmental (indirect) transmission.

  30. Maternal Transmission

  31. Environmental Transmission

  32. Hermatypic Versus Ahermatypic Corals

  33. Hermatypic Coral J. P. Hoover, 1998

  34. Ahermatypic Coral

  35. Benefits to the Coral Host • Higher rates of calcification (skeleton deposition). • Energy and materials for growth, repair, and reproduction. • Removal of chemical wastes from animal metabolism (nutrient recycling). • Receive chemicals that absorb damaging ultraviolet light.

  36. Benefits to the Algal Symbiont • Chemical wastes from animal metabolism are important inorganic nutrients for plants (nutrient recycling). • Surrounding animal tissues can concentration substantial amounts of ultraviolet light absorbing compounds. • Zooxanthellae, nonmotile single cells, get a place to live in the crowded reef environment.

  37. Chemical Recycling Between Zooxanthellae and Their Coral Hosts

  38. Heterotrophy Versus Autotrophy

  39. Polyps Adapted for Capturing Food

  40. FungiascutariaAn Exception?