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War on The Home Front. The War Drags On. While young men were encouraged to enlist in the army, all other citizens were invited to ‘do their part’. Posters, community groups and government campaigns encouraged citizens to make sacrifices. Help the War Effort. Buy War Bonds

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the war drags on
The War Drags On
  • While young men were encouraged to enlist in the army, all other citizens were invited to ‘do their part’.
  • Posters, community groups and government campaigns encouraged citizens to make sacrifices.
help the war effort
Help the War Effort
  • Buy War Bonds
  • Eat Less (Meat, Butter, Bread, Sugar)
  • School ended early so children could assist in the harvest.
  • Fundraisers to send Soap, Paper, Pencils and Candy to troops.
  • Women and Minorities were anxious to help out - despite feeling discrimination, prejudices and a ‘lesser-citizen’ status.
war measures act
War Measures Act
  • The War Measures Act is where the government (in extreme circumstances) is allowed to strip citizens of their rights and act with near unlimited powers.
  • The idea is that ‘desperate times call for desperate measures’.
enemy aliens
Enemy Aliens
  • Canadians of German, Austrian, Turkish and Ukrainian background who immigrated to Canada within the last 12 years were deemed ‘enemy aliens’ and forced to carry identity cards.
  • Shortly after, 8 500 of these ‘enemy aliens’ were rounded up and imprisoned in internment camps (including a Canadian member of Parliament!!)
  • Internment of recent immigrants in wartime was a common practice throughout the world.
other measures
Other Measures
  • New Berlin was officially renamed Kitchener (after a British Military Hero)
  • German language classes were cancelled across the country.
  • The music of German composers such as Beethoven and Wagner was banned.
  • The first time ‘round, Canada sent out a call for 25 000 men.
  • 33 000 men enlisted.
  • Canada was enthusiastic about war and, because the war was going to be over quickly, all was good!
enlistment problems
Enlistment Problems
  • However, war dragged on much longer than anyone had expected.
  • Canada had promised Britain 500 000 men for the war.
  • The total population of Canada was 8 million. Only 1.5 million were men of military age.
  • PM Bordon expected 1 out of 3 young men to be willing to risk their lives.
enlistment problems1
Enlistment Problems
  • During the Battle of Vimy Ridge (one of Canada’s most successful) 10 000 Canadian men were left dead or wounded.
  • Enlistment, in that same month, was fewer than 5 000.
  • See the problem?
military service act
Military Service Act
  • On August 29, 1917 the Military Service Act gave the government the right to conscript Canadian citizens for military duty.
  • This ‘draft’ allowed the government to force its citizens to join the army.
the french are upset
The French are Upset
  • When the war started, the French and the English were getting along great! But...
  • French enlistees were not given instruction in their native language.
  • French soldiers were not promoted to officer rankings
  • French enlistees were by-and-large separated in the various other units.
  • French expected to be treated better in Canada when the war started - they did not.
  • The Military Service Act came out just before the Federal election.
  • This means that it was the biggest issue in the debate.
  • Robert Bordon was afraid that, because he needed to resort to conscription, he was going to lose the next election.
  • Robert Bordon assumed that if he left things the way they were, he would lose the next election.
  • BUT, his plan was give SOME women the right to vote.
  • You could vote if you were a wife, sister or mother of a serviceman.
  • Bordon also took this opportunity to strip the right to vote from conscientious objectors.
bordon wins
Bordon Wins!
  • The women voted as he expected and Bordon’s Conservatives won the election of 1918.
  • 60 000 men were immediately drafted into the army.
  • However, not one of those men saw action in WWI as the armistice was sign November 11, 1918.
  • The German had a policy of firing upon any vessel in open waters.
  • This was meant to disrupt the supply chain of goods going to the enemies bases.
  • This was a good plan until the Lusitania.
  • When the war began, America took a firm neutral stance. This war did not concern them and they had nothing to gain.
  • However, when the Germany’s killed 1 200 passangers on the Lusitania (many of whom were American), it was taken as an act of war.
  • Germany had awoken a giant!
  • Much to the surprise of Russia, and the rest of the world, Russia backed out of the war in 1917.
  • The peasants of St. Petersburg stormed the Royal Palace and killed the Tsar and the entire Royal Family.
  • The new rulers, a group of communists, decided NOT to continue fighting in this war.
one front
One Front
  • With Russia out of the war, the Triple Alliance could focus all their efforts on the Western Front.
  • This was a problem for the Allies.
  • Until...
last hundred days
Last Hundred Days
  • The end of the war came so abruptly largely because of the hard work of the Canadian Soldiers (The Storm Troopers)
  • A massive offensive, spear headed by Canadian troops, brought extreme pressure to the Triple Alliance.
  • The Armistice was agreed upon at 11:00 A.M. November 11, 1918.
  • Soldier were fighting right up to 11:00 (hoping to get one more kill in).
  • Many death certificates were forged to read the previous day, to avoid anger from the families.
halifax explosion
Halifax Explosion
  • December 6, 1917.
  • The French munitions ship Mont Blanc collided with Belgium vessel Imo in the harbour.
  • 3000 tons (6 million lbs) of explosives were ignited.
halifax explosion1
Halifax Explosion
  • The blast destroyed a large portion of the city.
  • The power of the blast was felt 320 km away!
  • The tidal wave produced by the blast tossed other ships in the area to pieces.
  • 2000 people were killed and many more left injured and homeless.
halifax explosion2
Halifax Explosion
  • Until the invention of the Atomic Bomb in 1945, this was the single largest man-made explosion in history!
  • It also represents the single worst disaster in Canadian history.
  • The only remaining pieces of the Mont Blanc was a cannon and anchor found 3 km away!
halifax explosion4
Halifax Explosion
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8oaRr6A-gkA
halifax explosion5
Halifax Explosion
  • The world came to Canada’s aid following this disaster. Americans, in particular, were extremely generous following the tragedy and their contributions are still celebrated.
  • Assignment: Write a Newspaper Article about the explosion.