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Human Trafficking. Class Session One. Sharing. Find a partner that you do not know… or know very well. Find the following information out: -Make sure you know their name -Where they are from -The last fun activity they did -The last thing that made them sad or made

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human trafficking

Human Trafficking

Class Session One

  • Find a partner that you do not know…

or know very well.

  • Find the following information out:

-Make sure you know their name

-Where they are from

-The last fun activity they did

-The last thing that made them sad or made

them cry?

-What made them want to take this course?

contact cards
Contact Cards

-Full Name and Name you prefer to be called

-Email address(es)

-Phone Number where you can be reached

-Working Information- Are you working? Where? Hours? Etc.

-What are some of your occupational goals?

-What do you expect to learn from this class?

-One fun fact about yourself that hardly anyone knows

  • Contact Information
  • Course Description
  • Core Competencies
  • Required Text
  • Tentative Course Outline, Readings, and Assignments
  • Course Requirements and Student Evaluation
  • Student Expectations
  • Any Questions about the Syllabus?
course layout
Course Layout
  • 8 weeks course
  • Only meet 2 hours in class
  • Other hours are online assignments

Extra Credit-Trip to the Freedom Center, Cincinnati, OH

  • Friday and Saturday, Nov. 11th and 12th
  • We will be taken a van from the university
  • Hotel and most meals will be provided
  • Museum admittance covered
  • *Next semester’s course: Human Trafficking Inter- ventions
human trafficking1
Human Trafficking
  • Please rate yourself on how much you know about human trafficking:

A. When I signed up for the class, that’s the first time I have heard about it.

B. Vaguely familiar

C. I know what human trafficking is but have no idea about all the details

D. Very familiar

E. Expert

types of trafficking
Types of Trafficking
  • Sex trafficking
  • Bonded labor
  • Forced labor
  • Child Labor
  • Child soldiers
  • Chattel slavery
  • Domestic servant slavery
understanding human trafficking
Understanding Human Trafficking
  • Human trafficking is a devastating human rights violation that takes place not only internationally, but also here in the United States. It is, indeed, a form of modern-day slavery.
  • Traffickers use force, fraud or coercion to enslave their victims into situations involving sexual exploitation or forced labor.
human trafficking defined
Human Trafficking Defined
  • Those under 18 involved in commercial sex acts
  • Those 18 or over involved in commercial sex acts through force, fraud or coercion
  • Those forced to perform labor and/or services in conditions of involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage or slavery through force, fraud or coercion
human trafficking defined by federal law
Human Trafficking Defined By Federal Law
  • “Severe Forms” of human trafficking is:

(a) sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age; or

(b) the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purposes of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery.1

1 These definitions are from the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000


After drug dealing, human trafficking is tied with the illegal arms trade as the second largest criminal industry in the world, and it is the fastest growing.

trafficking vs smuggling
Trafficking vs. Smuggling



Voluntary ; an individual typically contracts to be taken across a border

Ends after the border crossing

Fees are usually paid in advance or upon arrival

Is always international in nature

Is a crime against the nation’s sovereignty

  • Not Voluntary; one cannot consent to being trafficked or enslaved
  • Entails forced exploitation of a person for labor or services
  • Need not entail the physical movement of a person
  • Can occur domestically, where citizens are held captive in their own country
  • Is a crime against the right of each person to be free from involuntary servitude
who are victims
Who Are Victims?
  • Approximately 800,000 to 900,000 victims annually trafficked across international borders.
  • Between 18,000 and 20,000 victims trafficked into United States annually.
  • More than half of victims trafficked into United States are thought to be children; victims are probably about equally women and men.
  • Victims can be trafficked into the U.S. from anywhere. Victims have come from, among other places, Africa, Asia, India, Latin America, Eastern Europe, Russia and Canada.
around 27 million people are in modern day slavery around the world
Around 27 million people are in modern-day slavery around the world
  • Handout
  • Let’s look at and discuss some of these statistics
who are victims in the us
Who Are Victims in the US?
  • Many victims in the U.S. do not speak English and are unable to communicate with service providers, police, or others who might be able to help them.
  • Often kept isolated and activities restricted to prevent them from seeking help.
  • May be watched, escorted or guarded by traffickers
  • Traffickers may “coach” victims to answer questions with cover story about being a wife, student or tourist.
how are victims trafficked
How Are Victims Trafficked?
  • Force, fraud and coercion are methods used by traffickers to press victims into lives of servitude, abuse
    • Force: Rape, beatings, constraint, confinement
    • Fraud: Includes false and deceptive offers of employment, marriage, better life
    • Coercion: Threats of serious harm to, or physical restraint of, any person; any scheme, plan or pattern intended to cause victims to believe that failure to perform an act would result in restraint against them; or the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process.
other elements that play into the human trafficking cycle
Other elements that play into the human trafficking cycle?
  • Poverty
  • Lack of education
  • Societal injustices (leads to the following:)
  • Recruitment through fraudulent advertisements promising legitimate jobs as hostesses, domestics, or work in the agricultural industry.
  • Trafficking victims of all kinds come from rural, suburban, and urban settings.
  • Human Trafficking video
feminization of human trafficking
Feminization of Human Trafficking
  • Feminization: a shift to predominately female; breeds a culture and cycle of women
  • “[W]omen concentrate in temporary, casual, and flexible labor

primarily due to their subordinate social and economic status, [and they] are hired as cheap, compliant labor that can be hired and fired more easily.”

  • Women comprise at least 56 percent of the world’s trafficking

victims. They are exploited in fields and brothels, in homes and conflicts, and in factories and fisheries. More women are being pushed out of developing countries due to economic, familial, and societal pressures – becoming ever more vulnerable to modern slavery.

feminization of human trafficking1
Feminization of Human Trafficking
  • One example:
  • This feminization of migration is seen in Indonesia, where millions of girls and women – almost 70 percent of all departing migrants –leave to find work abroad, including as domestic servants in more developed countries in East Asia and the Middle East. They often end up in places void of protections from abuse and enslavement, and some feel compelled to make the journey more than once to try earning the money they were initially promised. New routes of feminized migration have appeared in recent years – from Madagascar to Lebanon, from Ethiopia to the Persian Gulf states, and from Indonesia to Malaysia and the Middle East.
feminization of human trafficking2
Feminization of Human Trafficking
  • Women continue to be enslaved in commercial sex around the world.
  • They are often arrested for participating in a crime that

victimizes them when they should instead be provided with services and benefit from a well-trained police force implementing proven and compassionate victim identification measures.

  • Women continue to toil in sweatshop factories without food or break, sewing garments, peeling shrimp, and weaving carpets under threat of violence. Bonded by debt and force, they pick cotton, mine conflict minerals, and harvest rice alongside their children.
feminization of human trafficking3
Feminization of Human Trafficking
  • They toil in diplomatic households and suburban residences as domestic workers often without anyone knowing they are there let alone being abused.
  • Women are not just the victims; in so many countries, they are the solution. In the United States, the victim-centered approach of the TVPA was patterned on the lessons of legal reforms targeting domestic violence and sexual assault.
identifying victims of human trafficking
Identifying Victims of Human Trafficking
  • Frontline health providers, social workers,

stewardesses, airline workers,

important role identifying and

helping trafficking victims

  • While trafficking is largely hidden

social problem, many victims are

in plain sight if you know what to

look for .

  • Very few places where someone

from outside has opportunity to interact

with victim.

identifying victims of human trafficking1
Identifying Victims of Human Trafficking
  • Is potential victim accompanied by another person who seems controlling?
  • Does person accompanying potential victim insist on giving information to you?
  • Can you see or detect any physical abuse?
  • Does potential victim seem submissive or fearful?
  • Does potential victim have difficulty communicating because of language or cultural barriers?
  • Does potential victim have any identification?
  • Is potential victim suffering from common health problems experienced by trafficking victims?