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Oracle RAC. Overview of Real Application Clustering Features and Functionality. Overview. What is RAC? Cache Fusion Failover and Load-balancing Transparent Application Failover (TAF) Other RAC Features. RAC – What is it?. Multiple instances of Oracle running on up to 8 nodes

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oracle rac

Oracle RAC

Overview of Real Application Clustering Features and Functionality

overview
Overview
  • What is RAC?
  • Cache Fusion
  • Failover and Load-balancing
  • Transparent Application Failover (TAF)
  • Other RAC Features
rac what is it
RAC – What is it?
  • Multiple instances of Oracle running on up to 8 nodes
  • Multiple instances share a single physical database
  • All instances can simultaneously execute transactions against the single database
  • Caches are synchronized using Oracle’s Global Cache Management technology (Cache Fusion)
history of oracle rac
History of Oracle RAC
  • Previous Oracle Clustering Products
    • Oracle FailSafe on Windows
    • OPS (Oracle Parallel Server) on multiple platforms
    • OPS to RAC: 7.3 OPS  8i OPS  9i RAC  10g RAC
  • The clustering mechanism used to be more dependent on the Operating System.
  • With 10g RAC, clustered database is built into Oracle
oracle rac features
Oracle RAC Features
  • Full Cache Fusion
  • Enhanced coordination of cache management and distributed lock manager (DLM)
  • Lock simplification and automation
  • Global Cache Service coordinates local buffer cache and remote block transfers
  • Enhanced IPC
  • Resource configuration simplification and automation
  • Improved cluster aware tools
  • Enhanced DBCA
  • Oracle Enterprise Manager and Grid Control Integration Enhancements
rac uses shared everything

Server

Server

Server

Server

RAC uses “Shared Everything”

Users

Database

how rac clustering is done
How RAC clustering is done
  • One set of data
  • All nodes in the cluster see the same set of data
  • All nodes have access
  • Any node can update the data
increased manageability
Increased Manageability
  • One virtual system to configure and manage
    • Single Oracle Database
    • Single management console
    • Single system image for the database integrated with the cluster
  • Cluster-wide monitoring and diagnostics
  • Oracle Enterprise Manager Integration (9i)
  • Oracle DBConsole and Grid Control Integration (10g)
what s shared what s not
What’s shared; What’s not
  • Shared
    • Disk access
    • Resources that manage data
    • All instances have common data & controls files
  • Not Shared
    • Each node has its own dedicated:
      • System memory
      • Operating system
      • Database instance
      • Application software
    • Each instance has individual
      • Log files and
      • Rollback segments
rac can perform
RAC can perform
  • Load-balancing
  • Failover
load balancing through the listener

Client

Node 4

Node 1

Node 2

Node 3

Load-Balancing through the Listener

Listener

Listener

Listener

Listener

Database

how workload is balanced

Client

Node 2

How workload is balanced
  • Nodes report CPU usage to listeners

Node 1

Database

how workload is balanced13

Client

Node 2

How workload is balanced
  • Listeners choose least busy node when request comes in from client

Node 1

Database

load balancing

Node 4

Node 1

Node 2

Node 3

Load-Balancing

Users

Database

failover
Failover
  • If a node in the shared disk cluster fails, the system dynamically redistributes the workload among the surviving cluster nodes.
  • RAC checks to detect node and network failures. A disk-based heartbeat mechanism uses the control file to monitor node membership and the cluster interconnect is regularly checked to determine correct operation.
  • Reduced time to recovery with concurrent resource configuration and instance (cache) recovery
  • Enhanced failover reliability in 10g with the use of Virtual IP addresses (VIPs)
failover16

Server

Server

Server

Server

Failover

Users

X

Database

transparent application failover
Transparent Application Failover
  • Masks failures to end users; they don’t need to log back into the system
  • Applications and users are transparently reconnected to another node
  • Applications and queries continue uninterrupted
    • Transactions can failover and replay
  • Login context maintained
  • DML transactions are rolled back
rac improvements for oracle 9i
RAC Improvements for Oracle 9i
  • Full Cache Fusion
  • Enhanced coordination of cache management and distributed lock manager (DLM)
  • Lock simplification and automation
  • Global Cache Service coordinates local buffer cache and remote block transfers
  • Enhanced IPC (InterProcess Communication)
  • Resource configuration simplification and automation
oracle 10g rac new features
Oracle 10g RAC New Features
  • Integrated Clusterware Management
    • No third-party clusterware software required
  • Automatic Workload Management
    • Application workloads can be managed through named services
  • Single System Image Management
    • Enterprise Manager manages RAC instances as a single image
  • Fast Connection Failover
    • Fast recovery between the database and mid-tier applications
  • Performance Improvements
    • Reduced message traffic, memory usage, and other resources
  • Zero Downtime Patching
    • Patches may be applied one node at a time without downtime
  • Cluster Verification and Improved Diagnostic Tools
    • New cluster diagnostic tool and improved diagnostic tools
full cache fusion
Full Cache Fusion
  • Is a major feature of RAC starting with 9i
  • The underlying technology that enables RAC
  • Protocol that allows instances to combine their data caches into a shared global cache
  • Allows any node to get the most up-to-date data information from the cache of any other node in the cluster without having to access the disk drives again.
  • Improved performance with 10g
what is cache fusion when do i care about it
What is Cache Fusion? When do I care about it?
  • “Dirty” block of data is created
    • Data from disk is read into memory on a node
    • Data is updated on that node
    • Data hasn’t been written to disk yet.
  • Another node requests the data
abc updated to xyz in cache
“ABC” updated to “XYZ” in cache

Node A

Node B

ABC Data

XYZ Data

ABC Data

node b requests data block
Node B requests data block

I want data!

Gimme! Gimme!

Node A

Node B

ABC Data

XYZ Data

ABC Data

node a must write data block to disk drive
Node A must write data block to disk drive

I want data!

Gimme! Gimme!

Node A

Node B

ABC Data

XYZ Data

Previous to 9i RAC

write

ABC Data

XYZ Data

node b must read data block from disk drive
Node B must read data block from disk drive

Node A

Node B

ABC Data

XYZ Data

XYZ Data

Previous to 9i RAC

read

ABC Data

XYZ Data

now with rac cache fusion
Now with RAC Cache Fusion

I want data!

Gimme! Gimme!

Node A

Node B

ABC Data

XYZ Data

XYZ Data

  • Data is transferred immediately via the interconnect
  • Shared cache minimizesslow I/O

ABC Data

shared cache across nodes

Cache

Cache

Cache

Cache

Server

Server

Server

Server

Shared Cache Across Nodes

Users

Database

resource simplification and automation
Resource Simplification and Automation
  • No init.ora parameters required
  • Resource affinity
    • to move the location of the resource masters for a database file to the instance where block operations are most frequently occurring. This optimizes
  • Dynamic resource remastering
    • Ability to move the ownership of a resource between instances of Real Application Clusters.
    • Dynamic resource remastering is used to implement resource affinity for increased performance.
review
Review
  • What does cache fusion avoid that was mandatory in previous versions of Oracle Parallel Server?
  • Which Oracle process is most important in managing user session failover?
  • If the purpose of the interconnect is NOT to serve as a “heartbeat”, where is the heartbeat?
summary
Summary
  • New Features
  • Shared Everything Clustering
  • Cache Fusion
  • RAC Clustering failover & load-balancing