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What was Charles Darwin’s idea about evolution called? A) Competiton B) Natural Selection PowerPoint Presentation
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What was Charles Darwin’s idea about evolution called? A) Competiton B) Natural Selection

What was Charles Darwin’s idea about evolution called? A) Competiton B) Natural Selection

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What was Charles Darwin’s idea about evolution called? A) Competiton B) Natural Selection

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  1. What was Charles Darwin’s idea about evolution called? A) Competiton B) Natural Selection C) Survival D) Complete Evolution

  2. What are the two steps of speciation? A) Geographic Isolation and Reproductive Isolation B) Adaptive radiation and geographic isolation C) Reproductive isolation and adaptive radiation D) None of the above

  3. What is adaptive radiation? A) Differences in isolated groups become so great, they can no longer interbreed B) When a population becomes divided by a natural barrier C) survival of the fittest D) When one species splits into many species to fill open habitats

  4. What was Jay Gould’s theory? A) Punctuated equilibrium B) Popularized evolution C) Gradualism D) Neodarwinism

  5. Which of these is a Prokaryote? A) bacteria B) fungi C) protista D) plants

  6. What is taxonomy? A) the epithet for the species B) the genus name of the species C) method to name and classify species D) a two-part Latin name

  7. Layering occurs in which type of rock? A) igneous B) sedimentary C) metamorphic

  8. Evolution is: A) rapid change B) complete change C) gradual change D) extreme change

  9. Which is not a cause of evolutionary change? A) genetic drift B) speciation C) mutation D) founder effect

  10. Genetic drift involves: A) isolation  accumulate mutations B) Mutations  accumulate isolation C) founder effect D) isolation

  11. When a new species evolves during the recovery period following mass extinction A) Mass extinction B) Background extinction C) Adaptive radiation D) Emergent Species

  12. Which island would have the most species diversity? A) bigger islands B) small islands C) islands close to mainland D) islands farther from mainland

  13. The Galapagos Islands are located Near Europe Near Australia Below North America Below South America In the Atlantic Ocean

  14. What was interesting about the finches beaks? A. They all got fatter due to the tropical climate B. They got narrower since the seeds were harder here C. They were the same as on the mainland D. They all adapted individually to different situations. E. They fell off within 5 months of adult life.

  15. The current species on the island Separated into different species over time as their beaks and characteristics adapted Killed each other, leaving only the species seen now- a result of survival of the fittest and competition. All were replaced by new finches/birds the settlers brought over Were partially replaced by finches/birds the settlers brought over

  16. According to Darwin, what made up natural selection? Competition Variance Competition and Variance Competition and Instinct

  17. Being “fit” means ? Being the strongest in the species Being the strongest in the population Being the fastest and strongest in the species Being the fastest and strongest in the population Surviving to reproduce

  18. Fossils are formed when: Sedimentary rock compress against each other with the bones of dead organisms in them Dead animals bones are weathered by natural wind processes The sun burns away flesh and imprints dead animal bones into rock and sand\

  19. Limbs that share similar bone structure but have different function are called A. Homogenous B. Synonymous C. Homology D. Forelimbs E. Homologous

  20. What is not a type of competition? A) Resource competition B) Preemptive competition C) Mating competition D) Interference competition

  21. Why do insecticides not work completely? Companies purposely make the products weaker so customers have to buy more Government regulates their power to protect the environment under the FIFRA They target only adults in the insect population so those hatched do not get killed The stronger survive and reproduce genetically resistant offspring Insecticide has a very short half-life, so it wears off before the job is done a lot of times.

  22. How do we get Biodiversity?

  23. Evolution, Biodiversity, and Community Processes APES

  24. Biodiversity

  25. Biodiversity • Biodiversity • increases with speciation • decreases with extinction • Give-and-take between speciation and extinction  changes in biodiversity • Extinction creates evolutionary opportunities for adaptive radiation of surviving species

  26. Interpretations of Speciation Two theories: 1. Gradualist Model (Neo-Darwinian): Slow changes in species overtime 2. Punctuated Equilibrium: Evolution occurs in spurts of relatively rapid change

  27. Adaptive Radiation Emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor introduced to new and diverse environments Example: Hawaiian Honeycreepers

  28. Convergent Evolution Species from different evolutionary branches may come to resemble one another if they live in very similar environments Example: 1. Ostrich (Africa) and Emu (Australia). 2. Sidewinder (Mojave Desert) and Horned Viper (Middle East Desert)

  29. Coevolution • Evolutionary change • One species acts as a selective force on a second species • Inducing adaptations • that act as selective force on the first species Example: • Wolf and Moose • Acacia ants and Acacia trees • Yucca Plants and Yucca moths • Lichen

  30. Extinction • Extinction of a species occurs when it ceases to exist; may follow environmental change - if the species does not evolve • Evolution and extinction are affected by: • large scale movements of continents • gradual climate changes due to continental drift or orbit changes • rapid climate changes due to catastrophic events

  31. Extinction • Background extinction - species disappear at a low rate as local conditions change • Mass extinction - catastrophic, wide-spread events --> abrupt increase in extinction rate • Five mass extinctions in past 500 million years • Adaptive radiation - new species evolve during recovery period following mass extinction

  32. Mass Extinctions

  33. Equilibrium Theory of Biodiversity • Diversity is a balance of factors that increase diversity and factors that decrease diversity • Production of new species (speciation), and influx can increase diversity • Competitive exclusion, efficient predators, catastrophic events (extinction) can decrease diversity • Physical conditions • variety of resources • Predators • environmental variability

  34. Species Diversity Def: the variety of species in an area Two subcomponents: species richness species evenness

  35. Species Richness vs. Evenness Species Richness: measurement of the number of species in a given area Species Evenness (: measurement of how evenly distributed organisms are among Species (also called Species Abundance) Community A Community B species 1 25 1 species 2 0 1 species 3 25 1 species 4 25 1 species 5 25 96

  36. Determining Species Diversity Scientists may want to: * get an estimate of # of species in an area * compare species diversity of two communities To be accurate, need to: * take both species evenness and species richness into account

  37. Species Diversity Indices Shannon-Weiner (Shannon-Weaver) Index Diversity = H1=- ∑p1 {lnp1} (p sp 1 ln(p sp 1)) + (p sp 2 ln(p sp. 2) + … (p sp N ln(p sp. N) Measures: Species Richness and Species Abundance. Likelihood that the next indiv will be same species as previous species.

  38. What does this graph tell you about species richness?

  39. Shannon Weiner Values • Values-higher # higher biodiversity. • Value near 0 = every species is the same. • Value near close to the number of species = evenly distributed between the # of species.

  40. Simpson Index of Diversity SID=1-D or 1-Diversity • D=n1(n1-1) + n2(n2-1)….nx(nx-1) • N(N-1) • Measures species richness • And eveness in habitat.

  41. Simpson’s Diversity Index • Measure that accounts for both richness & % of each species. • The index first developed by Simpson in 1949. • Useful tool in terrestrial and aquatic ecologists for many yrs.

  42. Simpson’s Values • The higher the SID, the more diverse your sample is.

  43. Why should we care about measuring biodiversity (species diversity)?

  44. Biodiversity Factoids ~ 2,000,000 spp. have been described ~ 10-30,000,000 species actually exist (est.) ~ 8,000,000 – 22,000,000 spp. unidentified ~ 40 – 60% of all spp. occur in two areas: * tropical rainforests * coral reefs