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Virsuses: Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome & Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Outline. Introductory Comments Virus versus bacteria Examples of DNA and RNA containing viruses How RNA containing viruses can replicate Origins of HIV Dr. Hahn and colleagues Characteristics of HIV Particle

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Presentation Transcript
outline
Outline
  • Introductory Comments
    • Virus versus bacteria
    • Examples of DNA and RNA containing viruses
    • How RNA containing viruses can replicate
  • Origins of HIV
    • Dr. Hahn and colleagues
  • Characteristics of HIV Particle
    • Glycoproteins
    • Viral genes
  • Laboratory Diagnostic Tests
    • PCR
    • Western Blot
    • ELISA
  • -------------------------------------------------- Part 2 -------------------------
  • Treatment
  • Transmission
  • Prevention
note these stds are bacterial infections
Note: These STDs are bacterial infections!
  • SYPHILIS
    • Bacterium: Treponema pallidum
  • GONORRHEA
    • Bacterium: Neisseria gonorrhoeae
viruses
Viruses
  • DNA containing
  • RNA containing
dna containing viruses
DNA containing viruses
  • Herpes virus
  • Small pox virus
  • Hepatitis B
  • adenovirus
rna containing viruses
RNA containing viruses
  • Hepatitis A and C
  • Rabies
  • Ebola
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Polio
  • HIV

Rabies virus

Measles on the back

examples of how rna viruses replicate
Examples of how RNA viruses replicate

Negative strand

Positive

strand

Retro

human immunodeficiecy virus
HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIECY VIRUS
  • Family: retrovirus
  • Genus: lentivirus
  • Species: HIV 1 and HIV 2
  • Groups and Subtypes: variety
predominant subtypes of group m
Africa

Americas

China (southeast)

Europe

India

Japan

Thailand

A;D;C

B

C

B

C

B

E

“Predominant Subtypes of Group M”
slide14
Dr. Beatrice Hahn &

colleagues:

Drs. Li and Keele

slide15
Greater spot nose monkey

Red Cap Mangabey monkey

SIV cpz almost identical to HIV 1

Humans

slide16
Pan troglodytes troglodytes

Simian Virus (SIV cpz) almost identical to HIV 1

sooty mangabey monkey
Sooty mangabey monkey

Simian Virus corresponds to HIV2

slide18
HIV: Structure and

mechanism of replication

hiv glycoproteins
HIV Glycoproteins
  • Lipid Bilayer contains glycoproteins
    • Gp 160
    • Gp 120
    • Gp 41
hiv and helper t cells
HOST CELLS:helper T lymphocyte, macrophagesHIV and helper T cells

HIV-1

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter24/animation__hiv_replication.html

mechanism of infection
Mechanism of Infection

Infects Th cell

VIRAL RNA

Integrates into host DNA

“activated”

PROVIRAL DNA

LYTIC STAGE

storage

LYSOGENIC STAGE

co receptors
Co-Receptors

Binds naturally occurring chemokines

CCR5 or CXCR4 (fusin)

hiv diagnostic tests
HIV Diagnostic Tests
  • Western Blot
  • PCR

Directly measures HIV

polymerase chain reaction
Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Measures proviral DNA within the host DNA
western blot
Western Blot

Identifies HIV proteins

Protein ladder

hiv diagnostic tests1
HIV Diagnostic Tests
  • ELISA

measures

Indirect evidence of HIV exposure

slide33
Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay

(ELISA)

  • A diagnostic test for Antibodies to HIV

Antibodies

slide34
*Antibodies are proteins produced by our immune system that are directed against specific antigens.(Antibody interactions with antigens will also be discussed in our “immungenetics lecture”)
slide35
Antibodies

Antigens

Immune system

Non-self

slide36
Now apply these concepts to the diagnostic test known as ELISA to detect antibodies against HIV from a biologic fluid.
elisa microtiter plates
ELISA MICROTITER PLATES

Microtiter plate

the elisa protocol
The ELISA protocol

sample

Labelled 2nd Ab

antigen

3

2

1

4

Color inducing substrate

results
Results

POSITIVE ANTI-HIV

COLOR CHANGE

NEGATIVE ANTI-HIV

NO COLOR CHANGE

fda approves saliva oraquick rapid test for hiv 1 hiv 2 antibodies march 29 2004
FDA Approves Saliva OraQuick Rapid Test for HIV-1, HIV-2 Antibodies[March 29, 2004]

(similar test is also available for blood samples, see next slides).

slide45
1

2

OraQuick Rapid Anti-HIV Blood Test

20 minute test

Cost app. $15.00

3

outline1
Outline
  • Introductory Comments
    • Virus versus bacteria
    • Examples of DNA and RNA containing viruses
    • How RNA containing viruses can replicate
  • Origins of HIV
    • Dr. Hahn and colleagues
  • Characteristics of HIV Particle
    • Glycoproteins
    • Viral genes
  • Laboratory Diagnostic Tests
    • PCR
    • Western Blot
    • ELISA
  • -------------------------------------------------- Part 2 -------------------------
  • Treatment
  • Transmission
  • Prevention
ad