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A 21 ST CENTURY WAR. Kevin Benson, PhD Colonel, US Army (ret). Purpose. Offer useful information to fellow teachers. Tell the story of how we developed our plans for operations in Iraq. Explain, from my perspective, the external and internal pressures on the planners.

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a 21 st century war

A 21ST CENTURY WAR

Kevin Benson, PhD

Colonel, US Army (ret)

Truman Library Symposium 15JUL10

purpose
Purpose
  • Offer useful information to fellow teachers.
  • Tell the story of how we developed our plans for operations in Iraq.
  • Explain, from my perspective, the external and internal pressures on the planners.
  • Share my observations and reflections.

Truman Library Symposium 15JUL10

slide3

Do you know who this is?

Britney !!!

Truman Library Symposium 15JUL10

Britney Jean Spears (born December 2, 1981) is an American singer, dancer, songwriter,

do you know who this is

Do you know who this is?

Prof. Weaver Class 13 MAR 08

policy and war
Policy and War
  • War is merely the continuation of policy by other means.
    • We see, therefore, that war is not merely an act of policy but a true political instrument, a continuation of political intercourse, carried on with other means. What remains peculiar to war is simply the peculiar nature of its means. War in general, and the commander in any specific instance, is entitled to require that the trend and designs of policy shall not be inconsistent with these means. That, of course, is no small demand; but however much it may affect political aims in a given case, it will never do more than modify them. The political object is the goal, war is a means of reaching it, and means can never be considered in isolation from their purpose.

Clausewitz, ON WAR, paragraph 24, p. 87

Truman Library Symposium 15JUL10

damned reality
Damned Reality

Executing a Plan

HARD

The enemy always gets a vote!

REALITY

Having a Plan

Easy (relatively)

Truman Library Symposium 15JUL10

a comment that made me go hmmm
A comment that made me go, “HMMM …!!

“It’s hard to conceive that it would take more forces to provide stability in post-Saddam Iraq than it would take to conduct the war itself and to secure the surrender of Saddam’s security forces and his army. Hard to imagine.” Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz, remarks to the House Budget Committee, 27 February 2003

Truman Library Symposium 15JUL10

evolution of the cflcc oplan
EVOLUTION OF THE CFLCC OPLAN

VIGILANT GUARDIAN

SEP 01 – MAR 02

Continuous tension

regarding amount of

Force required “on the

Ground” to begin

the Ground Operation

OPLAN BLUE

MAR 02 – APR 02

One Corps

Limited Objective Attack

To create Battlespace and Secure the

Southern Iraqi Oil Fields

TPFDL

Two Corps

Simultaneous

Attack to Isolate

Baghdad

Generated Start Force

TPFDL

IMMINENT

BADGER

APR 02 – JUL 02

COBRA II

JUL 02 – MAR 03

Two Corps

Sequential

Attack to Isolate Baghdad

Running Start Force

TPFDL / Force Packages

Two Corps

Simultaneous

Attack to Remove Regime

TPFDL / Force Modules / RFF’s

? ? ? No TPFDL ? ? ?

  • Northern Line of Operation
  • Heavy / Light BCT – Demonstration
  • Heavy / Light BCT – Limited Objective Attack
  • Two Division (Coalition) – Supporting Attack
  • Division Combat Team – Supporting Attack

ECLIPSE II

JAN 03 – APR 03

Initially Two Corps

Restore Stability

Planning began JUN02

phasing construct 5 11 16 125 nov 02

Air bridge

Mobilization

Air

Ops

PHASING CONSTRUCT “5-11-16-125” Nov 02

Preparation

PHASE I

CENTCOM

Shaping Operations

  • 5 DAYS

PHASE II

  • 11 DAYS

Decisive Maneuver

Regime Removal / Transition

  • 16 DAYS

PHASE III

Deploy

forces

PHASE IV

  • 125 DAYS (WORST CASE)

UNKNOWN

G-Day

Setting Theater

Conditions

PHASE I

Shaping

Opns

CFLCC

PH II

Decisive Maneuver

Regime

Removal /

Transition

PHASE III

PHASE IV

LD

POTUS Decision

N-Day

C-Day

A- Day

*Limited Pre-C Day Movements

Flow begins

Air attacks

(C+11)

N= POTUS Decision C = Forces flow Begin

A = Air Operations Begin G = Ground Operations Begin

phase iii d 15 d 18
Phase III D+15 – D+18

Phase III: Scheme of Maneuver

D+15 – D+18 (3- 6 April)

XX

UK

1

XX

V

XX(-)

82

XX

XX

3

1

XXX

I

XXX

V

I I I

A

11

M

X

TF

TARAWA

III

  • I MEF: Supporting Effort
  • D+15
  • Established blocking positions prior to attacking Baghdad Division
  • D+16
  • Attacked to destroy Baghdad Div
  • Isolates SE Baghdad
  • Continues destruction of Regime Death Squads (RDS)
  • UK forces conducts aggressive patrolling in zone to destroy RDS
  • D+17
  • 1st MARDIV secures OBJ Ravens
  • 1UK DIV conducts raid on Said Traffic circle in AL Bashrah (WEST)
  • D+18
  • Attacked to extend isolation of Baghdad

LSA BUSHMASTER

  • V CORPS: Main Effort
  • D+15
  • 3ID advanced through Karbala Gap and secure key objectives
  • F-15E dropped one GBU on friendly troops
  • D+16
  • 2BCT, 3ID seized OBJ Saints and established roadblocks along HWY 1,8 and 9
  • 1BCT, 3ID engaging 2 pockets of infantry and a T72 near BIAP
  • 82d ABN attacks north of As Samawah
  • D+17
  • 3ID secures BIAP and OBJ Saints
  • 101 AASLT secures AN NAJAF and FARP Shell
  • D+18
  • 3ID conducts armored raid through Baghdad

Tallil

LSA

Adder

Jalibah

DJIMO Class 4JAN10

352CA CMDD+16

402d CA BDE delivered 17280 HDR’s and 120 pallets of water to LSA Adder

phase iv concept and nesting
Phase IV Concept and Nesting

CFC

Decisive Maneuver

PHASE III

Regime Removal / Transition

IVa Stabilization

IVc Transition

IVb Recovery

CJTF-IRAQ

DP

DP

Interim administration

CFLCC

CFLCC exercises

military authority on regional basis

DP

DP

Decisive Maneuver

PHASE III

Regime Removal

/ Transition

PHASE IV

Baghdad

Isolated

Regime Collapse/

Military Defeat

CFLCC

Redeployed

Independent

Iraqi Govt

OFFENSE

STABILITY

SUPPORT

DJIMO Class 4JAN10

The Nature of Operations

phase iv flash points threats to coalition forces
Phase IV – Flash Points & Threats to Coalition Forces

Irbil

Kirkuk

Mosul

Baghdad

Karbala

Al Amarah

Kurd

Kurd/Sunni

Sunni

Shia

Sunni/Shia

Sunni Turkmen

= Internal/ External Threats to Regime

= Direct Threats to Coalition Forces

Al Basrah

  • KDP, PUK and Turkomans
  • Territorial / oil infrastructure claims.
  • Score settling against Sunnis (Arabization).
  • Threats to Coalition Force
  • Resistance from remnants
  • of Iraqi Armed Forces.
  • Asymmetric Threat .
    • Terrorist attacks on LOCs.
    • Unconventional use of WMD.
    • Atks against Key Oil Nodes.
  • Shia holy cities*
  • Inter Shia power struggles
  • score settling against Sunnis.
  • religious rioting in the past.
  • An Najaf is the location of the shrine of Imam Ali B. Abi Talib and the grave site of the martyr Imam Husayn is in Karbala.
  • Intra Tribal factionalism.
  • Score settling against Sunnis.

An Najaf

DJIMO Class 4JAN10

cflcc cjtf 7 initial battle space
CFLCC/CJTF-7 Initial Battle space

XXX

XXXX

I

CFLCC

CFLCC/CJTF-7 Initial Battlespace

Phase IV Operations

XXX

V

Border Crossing

DJIMO Class 4JAN10

cflcc cjtf 7 initial battle space14
CFLCC/CJTF-7 Initial Battle space

XXXX

CJTF-7

CFLCC/CJTF-7 Coalition Battlespace

Phase IV Operations

XX

Border Crossing

MND-CS

POL

XX

UK

MND-S

DJIMO Class 4JAN10

what does this all mean
What does this all mean?
  • “The first, the supreme, the most far-reaching act of judgment that the statesman and commander have to make is to establish … the kind of war on which they are embarking; neither mistaking it for, nor trying to turn it into, something that is alien to its nature. This is the first of all strategic questions and the most comprehensive.”

Truman Library Symposium 15JUL10

why we are in the war
Why we are in the war
  • U.S. Strategic Objectives. Operations in Iraq will support the following U.S. strategic objectives:
    • A stable Iraq, with its territorial integrity intact and a broad-based government that renounces WMD development and use and no longer supports terrorism or threatens its neighbors.
    • Success in Iraq leveraged to convince or compel other countries to cease support to terrorists and to deny them access to WMD.
  • Military Objectives. Operations in Iraq will accomplish the following strategic military objectives:
    • Destabilize, isolate, and overthrow the Iraq regime and provide support to a new, broad-based government.
    • Destroy Iraq WMD capability and infrastructure.
    • Protect allies and supporters from Iraq threats and attacks.
    • Destroy terrorist networks in Iraq. Gather intelligence on global terrorism, detain terrorists and war criminals and free individuals unjustly detained under the Iraq regime.
    • Support international efforts to set conditions for long-term stability in Iraq and the region.

Truman Library Symposium 15JUL10

how we ve handled it
How we've handled it
  • Tactically – Not Bad
  • Operationally – Not Bad
  • Strategically – Remains to be seen
  • Policy – Remains to be seen

Truman Library Symposium 15JUL10

phase iii d 15 d 1818
Phase III D+15 – D+18

The Challenges of Leaving Iraq

Baghdad Airport

650 miles

Tallil

Jalibah

One Seaport

DJIMO Class 4JAN10

Two Kuwaiti airports

observations
Observations
  • The information age has not suspended the laws of Newtonian physics.
  • What can be “controlled” from Washington/Ottawa/London/etc., WILL be “controlled” from there…
  • Policy is too important to be left to politicians. Understand the policy making process and when in the position to inform policy makers tell the truth to power.

Truman Library Symposium 15JUL10

observations20
Observations
  • Read history critically, not how we WANT it to be
  • Our country is strong, vibrant, and will get through all of this in fine form. You already know this as you teach young people who are, by and large, really good.

Truman Library Symposium 15JUL10

what the future might hold
What the future might hold
  • If I could predict the future I’d be living in the Virgin Islands and be invited to Davos to prognosticate.
  • I agree with the Army Chief of Staff
    • I believe the next decades are likely to be ones of persistent conflict—protracted confrontation among state, non-state and individual actors that use violence to achieve their political and ideological ends. George W. Casey Jr., General, US Army, “The Strength of the Nation” Army Magazine, October 2007.
  • The challenge for all of YOU is to encourage young people to THINK, they are the national leaders of the future.

Truman Library Symposium 15JUL10

what we intended to do
What we intended to do
  • Present our opinions on
    • why we are in the war,
    • how we've handled it,
    • what the future might hold.
  • Provide useful information to fellow teachers

THANK YOU VERY MUCH!!!!!!

Truman Library Symposium 15JUL10

operation iraqi freedom chain of command
Operation Iraqi FreedomChain of Command

President/Secretary of Defense

CENTCOM = US Central Command

CFLCC = Combined Forces Land Component Command

CFACC = Combined Forces Air Component Command

CFMCC = Combined Forces Maritime Component Command

MARCENT = Marines Forces Central Command

CFSOCC = Combined Forces Special Operations Command

MEF = Marine Expeditionary Force

Truman Library Symposium 15JUL10

acronym list truman library presentation
A- Day = day air combat operations begin

AO = area of operations

BCT = Brigade Combat Team

BDE = Brigade

BN = Battalion

C3 = command, control, communications

CFC = Coalition Forces Command (also known as CENTCOM)

CGAs = coalition government agencies

CJTF = Combined Joint Task Force

CMO = Civil Military Operations

CMOC = Civil-Military Operations Center

COMCENT = Commander, Central Command (GEN Franks)

COMCFLCC = Commander, Combined Forces Land Component Command

CPA = Coalition Provisional Authority

CSS = Combat Service Support (supply & logistics)

DC = Displaced Civilians, District of Columbia

DoD = Department of Defense

DoE = Department of Energy

DoJ = Department of Justice

DoS = Department of State

DP = Decision Point

EPW = Enemy Prisoner of War

G-Day = Day ground combat operations begin

HA = Humanitarian Assistance

HACC = Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Center

HN = Host Nation

HOC = Humanitarian Operations Center

HOC-IZ = Humanitarian Operations Center – Iraq

HVT = High Value Target

IA-DART = Inter-Agency-Disaster Assistance Response Team

IOs = international organizations or information operations

ISG = Iraq Survey Group

IZ = military short hand for Iraq, IR is Iran

JSOA-N = Joint Special Operations Area – North

KDP = Kurdish Democratic Party

LOC = Line of Communication

LOGCAP = Logistics Civil Augmentation Program

LSA = Logisitic Support Area

ACRONYM LISTTruman Library Presentation

Truman Library Symposium 15JUL10

acronym list truman library presentation25
MeK = Mujahadin e’ Khalq, Iraqi backed anti Iranian group based in Iraq

MSC = Major Subordinate Commands

NBC = Nuclear, Biological, Chemical

NGOs = non-governmental organizations

NIC = New Iraqi Corps (the project to rebuild the Iraqi Army)

OGA = Other Government Agencies

OPLAN = Operations Plan

PUK = Patriotic Union of Kurdistan

RA = Regular Army (Iraqi)

RFF = Request for forces

RGFC = Republican Guard Forces Command (Iraqi ground forces)

SCIRI = Supreme Committee for the Iranian Revolution in Iraq (Iranian backed Shia group that opposed Saddam)

SF = Special Forces

SOF = Special Operating Forces

SRG = Special Republican Guard (elite unit of the Republican Guard with personal loyalty to Saddam)

SSE = sensitive site exploitation

SSO = Special Security Organization (Iraqi secret police)

TPFDD = Time phased force deployment data

TPFDL = Time phased force deployment list

UXO = unexploded ordinance

WMD = weapons of mass destruction

ACRONYM LISTTruman Library Presentation

Truman Library Symposium 15JUL10

recommended reading list
Recommended Reading List
  • COBRA II, by Michael Gordon
  • ON POINT, by Greg Fontenot, et al
  • ON POINT II, by COL Tim Reese, ed.
  • FIASCO, by Tom Ricks
  • Tell Me How This Ends, by Linda Robinson
  • The Good Soldiers, by David Finkel
  • Rumsfeld: On His Own Terms, by Gordon Bradley
  • In the Company of Soldiers, by Rick Atkinson
  • Baghdad at Dawn, by Peter Mansoor
  • THUNDER RUN, by David Zucchino
  • Not A Good Day To Die, by Sean Naylor
  • Black Hearts, by Jim Frederick

Truman Library Symposium 15JUL10