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SECTION 1 – General Responsibilities. Objectives. By the end of this session you will:. Be aware the steps and procedures in place to enforce Health and Safety in the workplace. Understand the importance of basic site safety procedures.

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SECTION 1 – General Responsibilities


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    1. SECTION 1 – General Responsibilities FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    2. Objectives By the end of this session you will: • Be aware the steps and procedures in place to enforce Health and Safety in the workplace • Understand the importance of basic site safety procedures • Understand the significance of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    3. Managing Health and Safety on Construction Sites… • Is the responsibility of the Site Manager • However it is everyone's responsibility to work safely and report unsafe conditions on site • Health and Safety on site will be reinforced by:- - Health & Safety Policy (Highlights how Health and Safety is managed) - Site Inductions (Explain the health and safety rules of the site) - Toolbox Talks (Short training sessions on Health and Safety topics) - The explanation of Risk Assessments and Method Statements - The enforcement of Permit to Work Systems FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    4. Site Induction • When you first start on site you should always attend site induction - this is when the health and safety rules for the site will be explained • If you do not understand anything the presenter has said you should always ask the presenter to repeat the point again • If after time you feel that the safety rules for the site are out of date you should always speak to your supervisor about your concerns • Remember, the Health and Safety policy on your site will help you to do your job safely FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    5. Risk Assessments & Method Statements • By law Risk Assessments must be completed for all work activities • Risk Assessments help identify hazards in the workplace (anything at work that can harm you) and will show you how to do a job safely • You do not have to prepare your own Risk Assessments • The findings of a Risk Assessment will result in the production of a Method statement – this indicates the safest and correct way to do a job • If you find that you cannot do a job in accordance with the Method Statement do not start work until you have spoken to your supervisor FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    6. Permits to Work • A Permit to Work will often be issued to workers during site induction • Permits to Work allow certain jobs to be carried out under controlled conditions • If a job requires a permit you will not be allowed to start the job until the Permit to Work has been issued • If a Permit to Work expires before a job is finished you must stop work until the permit has been replaced FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    7. Basic Tips For Site Safety Include… • Keep your work area clean and tidy (helps prevent slips, trips and falls) • Always wear the appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • Ensure any work you do is in accordance with the Risk Assessments and Method Statements for the job • Dispose of any rubbish in designated waste areas (helps prevent environmental incidents • Report all environmental incidents, accidents and near misses as soon as is practicable (This helps ensure that they will not happen again) FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    8. Children on Construction Sites • Particular attention must be paid to the possibility of children playing on construction sites Children must not play on this site • If you find children playing on site you must make sure they are taken to a place of safety FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    9. Health and Safety at Work and The Law • Guidance on Health and Safety in the workplace is primarily contained in the Health & Safety at Work Act 1974 (HASAWA) • The Health & Safety at Work Act is important because:- - It places legal duties on you as an employee (You must work safely) - It places legal duties on your employer ( employers must provide a safe place of work) • The Health and Safety at Work Act places duties on all people at work • Adherence to the principles of the Act are overseen by Health and Safety Executive (HSE) FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    10. The Health and Safety Executive • Health and Safety Executive Inspectors may inspect any site at any time without notice • Health and Safety Executive Inspectors may issue:- - Improvements Notices (this means you are not working in a safe way) - Prohibition Notices (all work subject to the notice must stop) • If you are told that a Health and Safety Executive Inspector is on site you should always carry on working as normal unless you are asked to stop FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    11. What Questions Do You have? What Questions Do You have? What Questions Do You have? What Questions Do You have? What Questions Do You have? What Questions Do You have? What Questions Do You have? FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    12. SECTION 5 – Working at Height FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    13. Objectives By the end of this session you will: • Have an awareness of the safe use of ladders • Have an awareness of the safe use of scaffolds & aluminium towers • Understand the techniques used when working on fragile roofs FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    14. Working At Height You are classified as working at height if: • You are working at any height that would cause an injury if you fell • Working at height regulations affect you if you are working: - On ladders - On scaffolds and aluminium towers - On roofs - On/Under bridges • This list is not exhaustive… FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    15. Working With Ladders • Ladders should only be used as place of work if you are doing light duties for a short period of time • Ladders should always be inspected prior to any sort of use • The only person that should tell you a ladder is fit for use is you • Damaged ladders should always be reported and not used • Ladders should never be painted as they paint may hide damage to the ladder or create a slip hazard FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    16. Any angle greater than 75 degrees and the ladder may be too steep to climb and become unstable • Any angle less than 75 degrees and the ladder may be under too much stress and may snap X X a o o o 75 45 85 Using a Ladder • When using a ladder always keep the ladder at an angle of 75 degrees FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    17. Ladder snapped due to being used at an angle of less than 75 o How Not To Use a Ladder…. FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    18. 1 2 3 4 5 When Securing a Ladder… • It is best to tie and extend the ladder about five rungs above the platform being scaled. This also increases the ladder’s stability • It is best to secure the ladder at the top, this increases the ladder’s stability FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    19. When Using a Ladder… • Remember, only one person on a ladder at a time • When climbing up or climbing down a ladder always make sure that your body has three points of contact at any given time • These rules effect all types of ladder, including ladders built into aluminium towers and scaffolds FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    20. How Not To Use a Ladder…. FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    21. How Not To Use a Ladder…. FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    22. How Not To Use a Ladder…. FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    23. Working With Scaffolding & Aluminium Towers… • May only be erected, altered and dismantled by people who are competent and authorised • All components must be inspected for damage prior to assembly • If any components are damaged or faulty (Including wheels, brakes etc) always report it to your supervisor • Do not attempt to use the scaffold until damaged components are replaced FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    24. Assembling Scaffolding & Aluminium Towers… • Aluminium Towers should never be assembled on soft or uneven ground • Stabilisers or outriggers and ballast weights should always be fitted when specified • If not, the likely outcome could be this… FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    25. Using Scaffolding & Aluminium Towers… • When climbing an aluminium tower always use the ladder built into the tower • Always climb on the inside of the aluminium tower • Use the trapdoors built into the platforms FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    26. If storing tools or materials on an aluminium tower or scaffold platform you must ensure: - The platform can safely take the weight of the materials being stored - The materials a stored safely and securely - The platform is still safe for others to use • Materials may be stored safely by installing edge protection such as: - Toe boards - Brick Guards Using Scaffolding & Aluminium Towers… FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    27. How Not To Store Materials…. FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    28. How Not To Use Edge Protection…. FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    29. Working on Roofs and Raised Platforms… • If possible, edge protection should be always be installed when working at height • Fragile roofs should always be crossed using crawl boards that can take the weight of a person FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    30. If Edge Protection Cannot Be Fitted: • Soft Landing Systems such as safety nets/inflatable airbags should be used • At the very least, staff should be fitted with a Harness & Lanyard • Harness & Lanyards are especially relevant when working above water or at extreme height (i.e. ‘high rise’ construction or under bridges) FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    31. Red Road Flats, circa 1964 How Not To Work At Height…. FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    32. What Questions Do You have? What Questions Do You have? What Questions Do You have? What Questions Do You have? What Questions Do You have? What Questions Do You have? What Questions Do You have? FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    33. SECTION 7 – Emergency Procedures & First Aid FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    34. Objectives By the end of this session you will: • Be aware of the main injuries associated with working on construction sites • Understand the importance of attending site induction • Understand the emergency procedures that should be followed if there is an accident or an individual is injured in the workplace FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    35. Injuries On Site may Include… Puncture wounds Cuts & Scrapes Burns Broken Bones Electric shocks And many more… FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    36. When You First Start On Site… • It is essential that you understand the Emergency Procedures for the site and be able to locate: - The fire exits on site - The fire assembly points on site -The emergency telephones numbers for the site • This information may be gained by reading the site notice boards or attending a site induction • If there is an accident always follow the site emergency procedures FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    37. First Aid Boxes • By law in the UK employers must provide First Aid Boxes and ensure that certain staff are trained in First Aid (First Aiders/Appointed Persons) • First Aid Boxes should never contain pain killers as some people may be allergic to them! • If the First Aid Box on your site is always empty always let the people in charge of the box know • Remember, if you are working on a remote part of site on your own you should take a small first aid kit with you FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    38. ‘First Aiders’ • When working on site certain staff must be trained in basic First Aid. Such staff are referred to as First Aiders or Appointed Persons • Appointed Persons are only responsible for contacting and directing the emergency services to the injured • First Aiders can administer basic first aid but cannot give out pain killers or give you any medicines • If you wish to become a First Aider, always speak to your supervisor to see if you can attend a First Aider’s course FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    39. First Aid Procedures • If you discover an injured person on site the first thing you should do is ensure thatyou are not in any danger yourself • First Aid on site must only be administered by qualified First Aiders • If you are not qualified in First Aid, you should always get someone to get the First Aider or get someone to call the emergency services • Remember, if you Are not qualified in First Aid you may do the casualty more harm than good FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    40. First Aid Procedures - Fractures & Broken Bones • The most common cause of broken bones on site are falls from height • If you think that someone has fallen and broken a bone always send for a First Aider or get medical help • If someone has fallen from height and has no feeling in their legs make sure they stay where they are until medical help arrives • If somebody with no feelings in their legs is moved incorrectly this may lead to further complications… FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    41. First Aid Procedures - Excavations and Confined Spaces • Particular care must be taken if people have collapsed or are unconscious in an excavation or confined space • You must never enter the excavation unless you know it is safe to do so - there may be a lack of oxygen or poisonous gasses present • If you can see that people are in difficulty shout to let others know what has happened and get medical help FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    42. First Aid Procedures - Electric Shock • Particular attention must be taken if a casualty has suffered an electric shock and is in contact with a live cable • If a casualty is in contact with a live cable make sure that the power is switched off and call for medical help • Remember, over 1000workers suffer serious electric shocks in the workplace every year • This makes effective electrical safety procedures in the workplace essential FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    43. First Aid Procedures - Puncture Wounds • Special attention must be taken if a casualty has suffered any sort of puncture wound • If a casualty has a nail in their foot do not remove the nail until medical help arrives – the nail is helping to stop the bleeding • If a casualty has a large splinter embedded deep in their hand you must ensure that they receive proper first aid treatment • Remember, wounds that are not cleaned properly may become infected FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    44. Emergency Eye Wash First Aid Procedures - Eye Injuries • If someone gets grit in their eye, the best thing to do is flush out the eye with clean water • Many First Aid kits include emergency Eye Wash • Emergency Eye Wash should be made available on all sites where people could get something in their eyes • If the injury is more serious or the grit cannot be removed from the eye always ensure that the emergency services are called FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    45. Excavations, Confined Spaces And The Law • Guidance on Emergency Procedures and First Aid in the workplace are contained in the Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981 • By law, employers must:- - provide adequate and appropriate First Aid equipment and facilities - Provide adequately trained personnel to enable first aid to be given to employees if they are injured or become ill at work FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    46. What Questions Do You have? What Questions Do You have? What Questions Do You have? What Questions Do You have? What Questions Do You have? What Questions Do You have? What Questions Do You have? FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    47. SECTION 9 – Electrical Safety FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    48. Objectives By the end of this session you will: • Understand the dangers associated with electricity in the workplace • Be able to identify the correct voltage of electrical tool for construction sites • Understand the procedures for ensuring electrical safety in the workplace FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    49. Electrical Safety • In the UK over 1000workers suffer serious electric shocks in the workplace every year • On average, 25 workers are killed through electrical accidents in the workplace every year • This makes effective electrical safety procedures in the workplace essential FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION

    50. Danger of electrocution Overhead Power Lines • On average 5 workers are killed through electrical accidents involving overhead power lines and every year • Workers should only work close to overhead power lines if the power to the line has been switched off. Electricity can jump from overhead lines if you get too close • If any electrical cable has any bare wires always inform your supervisor and ensure that others are kept well away from the cable until it is made safe FACULTY OF CONSTRUCTION