Mountains Biome Unit Project – Example Presentation
Mountains Biome Unit Project Example Presentation
Mountain Biome • Cover 20% of the Earth’s surface. • Found on all continents and in all oceans.
Mountain Biome • Some animals only found on specific mountains. • Changes in soil, vegetation, climate and elevation all within a matter of a few feet.
Himalayan Alpine Range • Located in Asia in the countries of Nepal, Tibet (China), India, Pakistan and Bhutan. • The range makes a curve of 2,400 km through Southern Asia. Latitude ~30° north of the equator.
Himalayan Alpine Range • Home to some of the highest peaks, with over 100 peaks over 7.2 km • Including the highest in the world, Mount Everest.
Precipitation • Very thin air and dry air due to high altitude. • Average 30 cm/year; • summer around 7 cm, • winter about 3 ½ cm., • This increases from West to East.
Precipitation • Over 15,000 glaciers store about 12,000 km3 of fresh water providing for 600 million people.
Precipitation millimeters (mm) Months
Temperature • The climate is very cold and it is hard to survive in most parts. It is so cold because of its high altitude. • Two main seasons; long and very cold winters and short and cool summers.
Temperature Celsius (°C) Months
Soil & Nutrients • Soils are thin or non-existent on steep slopes, which restricts the types of plants that can grow. • Uppermost slopes may be barren of plant-life.
Producers • Oak, laurel, and chestnut trees found up to 7,000 feet. • Pine trees found up to 12,000 feet. • Above that, only lichens, grass and moss can be found.
Chir Pine Trees • Coniferous evergreen. • Average height is 5.5 m and 4.6 m spread. • Drought tolerant when established.
Rhododendron • Grows on stony slopes and ledges at altitudes of 12,000 to 14,500 feet. • Round in shape and up to 4 feet tall. • Contain a poison causing severe stomach ache, and even liver damage and pneumonia.
Tussock Grasses • Their roots can reach moisture more deeply than other plants. • Food for insects, birds and larger herbivores.
Consumers • Variety of consumers depending upon elevation and location. • Southern end of the mountain range are tiger, monkey, leopard, and the Asian elephant.
Grasshopper • About 19 ~ 38 mm. • Make noises by rubbing their hind legs on their abdomens, or by snapping their wings in flight. • Prefer to eat grasses, leaves and cereal crops.
Mountain Hare • Change color from shades of brown to white, keeping them camouflaged against winter snow. • Most active at night, and shelter during the day. • Feeds on twigs, bark, and grasses.
Himalayan Tahr • 4 ft. at shoulders, 5½ ft. long, and 189 pounds. • Flexible hooves allow it to grip smooth rocks, while a hard, sharp rim can lodge into small footholds. • Eat almost any vegetation.
Alpine Choughs • Average 220 grams, and 38 cm in length with 80 cm wingspan. • Eggs have adaptations to thin atmosphere that improve oxygen uptake and reduce water loss. • Eat mostly invertebrates and fruit.
Tibetan Red Fox • Largest of the true foxes – 14 kg, 50 cm high at the shoulder, 90 cm in body length with tails 53 cm. • Run 50 km/h, jump 2 m high, and swims very well. • Eat small mammals, plants and even grasses.
Snow Leopard • Coat is thickest of any cat, and average size is up to 4 feet long, 2 feet high, and up to 3 foot tail. • Long tail for balance, and can pounce up to 20 feet. • Eats wild sheep, wild boars, gazelles, hares, markhor, bobak, tahr, marmots, mice and deer.
Food Web Red Fox Tertiary Consumer Snow Leopard Secondary Consumer Chough Secondary Consumer Mountain Hare Primary Consumer Himalayan Tahr Primary Consumer Grasshopper Primary Consumer Poison Rhododendron Producer ChirPine Tree Producer Tussock Grass Producer
Human Impact • Growing ever more polluted, due to the growing popularity of climbing the mountains. • Supplies are left on the mountain because it takes too much energy to bring it down again.
Solution • Refundable deposits are charged to the climbers to encourage them to bring their trash back down. • Too many climbing permits has resulted in responsible tourism criteria of sustainability.