Introduction to Winter Tree Identification. Coniferous Trees. These are trees that hold on to their leaves all year round . Their leaves are needle or scale-like . These forests are home to many fur-bearing animals. Alternate names: Evergreens Softwoods. Coniferous Trees.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Coniferous Trees • These are trees that hold on to their leaves all year round. • Their leaves are needle or scale-like. • These forests are home to many fur-bearing animals. • Alternate names: • Evergreens • Softwoods
Coniferous Trees Scale-like leaves Needle-like leaves
Deciduous Trees • These are trees that lose their leaves in the winter. • These trees are harder in density, and are used for furniture and flooring. • A hardwood log will burn longer and hotter than a softwood log. • Alternate names: • Hardwood • Broad leaved trees
How to identify a tree? • Learn the tree identification features • Know your environment or habitat • Wetland, upland, soil type • Use a tree identification key • Determine whether coniferous or deciduous. • Check to see bud or leaf arrangement
Tree Identification Features • Leaf, needle, scale-like leaf • Twig and bud • Bark • Size and form • Shade tolerance • Seed • Wood • Region and habitat
1. Identifying by the leaf • A: Leaf type • B: Arrangement on twig • C: Leaf shape • D: Leaf margin
A: Leaf Types • Compound vs. Simple • Scale-like • Needles • In bunches of 5 • In bunches of 2 • Simply on twig
Simple undivided Compound Divided into leaflets A: Leaf Type
Scale-like Needles A: Leaf Type In bundles of 5 In bundles of 2 Singly on twig
B: Leaf Arrangement • Alternate • Leaves grow alternately on twig • Opposite • Leaves grow opposite of each other on twig • Whorled • Leaves grow in a circular fashion on the twig
C: Leaf Shape oval reversed oval linear heart-shaped cordate cuneate
D: Leaf Margins • Smooth • Toothed • Wavy or lobed
2. Twig and Buds • Twig with opposite bud arrangement • Twig with alternate bud arrangement • Conifer twig
3. Bark • Varies by age and growth rate • Identifying features: • Colour • Structure (flaky, smooth, rough) • Pattern (fissured, furrowed, flat ridges)
4. Form or Shape • Form refers to the shape of the crown, the branches and the trunk. • Each species has a characteristic form when grown in the open
5. Shade Tolerance • All tree species have a tolerance level for shade. • Intolerant • Species that cannot survive in shaded conditions. They need direct sunlight to grow. • Intermediate • Species that can survive in partially shaded conditions. • Tolerant • Species that can live in shaded conditions
6. Region & Habitat • Soil structure, water conditions and sunlight all have an impact on species of trees growing in a region • Examples: • Bog – black spruce, larch • Upland, rocky terrain – sugar maple, hickory, beech, red oak, jack pine • Clay loam field – ash, basswood, elm
Coniferous AKA: Evergreens, softwoods, needle-bearing trees Class: Magnoliopsida Division: Pinophyta
Needles Clusters of 2, 3 and 5 needles per bundle Scales Usually flat Waxy Coniferous leaf
Short needles or scales In opposite or whorls
Eastern White Cedar • Thuja occidentalis L. • AKA: Northern white cedar, eastern thuja, eastern arbovitae
Needles Bundles of 2, 3 and 5
Eastern White Pine • Pinus strobus L. • AKA: northern white pine, weymouth pine • The only 5 needle pine in Eastern Canada.
Red Pine • Pinus resinosa Ait. • AKA: Norway pine • The only native 2 needle pine in eastern Canada with long needles
Tamarack • Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch • AKA: Larch • Has tufts of soft needles in summer, leaves turn brilliant yellow in fall and trees become leafless in winter.
Balsam Fir • Abies balsamea L. • AKA: Canada balsam
White Spruce • Picea glauca (Voss) • AKA: Cat spruce, skunk spruce, pasture spruce, Canadian spruce
Eastern Hemlock • Tsuga canadensis Carriere
Deciduous AKA: broadleaf, hardwoods, flowering trees Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida
Opposite pairs Two leaves or buds are positioned on opposite sides of the stem
Sugar Maple • Acer saccharum Marsh. • AKA: Hard maple, rock maple
Silver Maple • Acer saccharinum L. • AKA: Soft maple
Red Maple • Acer rubrum L. • AKA: Swamp maple, soft maple
White Ash • Fraxinus americana L. • Compound leaf
Butternut • Juglans cinerea L. • AKA: White walnut
Leaves alternate and simple Edges lobed
Bur Oak • Quercus macrocarpa Michx. • AKA: Blue oak, mossycup oak
Leaves alternate and simple Edges toothed
Basswood • Tilia americana L. • AKA: American linden
White Birch • Betula papyrifera Marsh. • AKA: Paper birch, canoe birch
Winter Tree ID Key • Take a few minutes to go over your handout. • Highlight the important aspects, in order to help you differentiate types of trees. • Feel free to add notes. Sometimes coding helps the memory.
Activity – Name that tree • As a group, your objective will be to use your handout in order to name the type of tree displayed on each slide. READY?