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Introduction to Winter Tree Identification. Coniferous Trees. These are trees that hold on to their leaves all year round . Their leaves are needle or scale-like . These forests are home to many fur-bearing animals. Alternate names: Evergreens Softwoods. Coniferous Trees.

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Introduction to Winter Tree Identification


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    1. Introduction to Winter Tree Identification

    2. Coniferous Trees • These are trees that hold on to their leaves all year round. • Their leaves are needle or scale-like. • These forests are home to many fur-bearing animals. • Alternate names: • Evergreens • Softwoods

    3. Coniferous Trees Scale-like leaves Needle-like leaves

    4. Deciduous Trees • These are trees that lose their leaves in the winter. • These trees are harder in density, and are used for furniture and flooring. • A hardwood log will burn longer and hotter than a softwood log. • Alternate names: • Hardwood • Broad leaved trees

    5. How to identify a tree? • Learn the tree identification features • Know your environment or habitat • Wetland, upland, soil type • Use a tree identification key • Determine whether coniferous or deciduous. • Check to see bud or leaf arrangement

    6. Tree Identification Features • Leaf, needle, scale-like leaf • Twig and bud • Bark • Size and form • Shade tolerance • Seed • Wood • Region and habitat

    7. 1. Identifying by the leaf • A: Leaf type • B: Arrangement on twig • C: Leaf shape • D: Leaf margin

    8. A: Leaf Types • Compound vs. Simple • Scale-like • Needles • In bunches of 5 • In bunches of 2 • Simply on twig

    9. Simple undivided Compound Divided into leaflets A: Leaf Type

    10. Scale-like Needles A: Leaf Type In bundles of 5 In bundles of 2 Singly on twig

    11. B: Leaf Arrangement • Alternate • Leaves grow alternately on twig • Opposite • Leaves grow opposite of each other on twig • Whorled • Leaves grow in a circular fashion on the twig

    12. C: Leaf Shape oval reversed oval linear heart-shaped cordate cuneate

    13. D: Leaf Margins • Smooth • Toothed • Wavy or lobed

    14. 2. Twig and Buds • Twig with opposite bud arrangement • Twig with alternate bud arrangement • Conifer twig

    15. 3. Bark • Varies by age and growth rate • Identifying features: • Colour • Structure (flaky, smooth, rough) • Pattern (fissured, furrowed, flat ridges)

    16. 4. Form or Shape • Form refers to the shape of the crown, the branches and the trunk. • Each species has a characteristic form when grown in the open

    17. 5. Shade Tolerance • All tree species have a tolerance level for shade. • Intolerant • Species that cannot survive in shaded conditions. They need direct sunlight to grow. • Intermediate • Species that can survive in partially shaded conditions. • Tolerant • Species that can live in shaded conditions

    18. Shade Tolerance Chart

    19. 6. Region & Habitat • Soil structure, water conditions and sunlight all have an impact on species of trees growing in a region • Examples: • Bog – black spruce, larch • Upland, rocky terrain – sugar maple, hickory, beech, red oak, jack pine • Clay loam field – ash, basswood, elm

    20. Coniferous AKA: Evergreens, softwoods, needle-bearing trees Class: Magnoliopsida Division: Pinophyta

    21. Needles Clusters of 2, 3 and 5 needles per bundle Scales Usually flat Waxy Coniferous leaf

    22. Short needles or scales In opposite or whorls

    23. Eastern White Cedar • Thuja occidentalis L. • AKA: Northern white cedar, eastern thuja, eastern arbovitae

    24. Needles Bundles of 2, 3 and 5

    25. Eastern White Pine • Pinus strobus L. • AKA: northern white pine, weymouth pine • The only 5 needle pine in Eastern Canada.

    26. Red Pine • Pinus resinosa Ait. • AKA: Norway pine • The only native 2 needle pine in eastern Canada with long needles

    27. Tamarack • Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch • AKA: Larch • Has tufts of soft needles in summer, leaves turn brilliant yellow in fall and trees become leafless in winter.

    28. Single, flat or 4-sided

    29. Balsam Fir • Abies balsamea L. • AKA: Canada balsam

    30. White Spruce • Picea glauca (Voss) • AKA: Cat spruce, skunk spruce, pasture spruce, Canadian spruce

    31. Eastern Hemlock • Tsuga canadensis Carriere

    32. Deciduous AKA: broadleaf, hardwoods, flowering trees Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida

    33. Opposite pairs Two leaves or buds are positioned on opposite sides of the stem

    34. Sugar Maple • Acer saccharum Marsh. • AKA: Hard maple, rock maple

    35. Silver Maple • Acer saccharinum L. • AKA: Soft maple

    36. Red Maple • Acer rubrum L. • AKA: Swamp maple, soft maple

    37. White Ash • Fraxinus americana L. • Compound leaf

    38. Leaves alternate & compound

    39. Butternut • Juglans cinerea L. • AKA: White walnut

    40. Leaves alternate and simple Edges lobed

    41. Bur Oak • Quercus macrocarpa Michx. • AKA: Blue oak, mossycup oak

    42. Leaves alternate and simple Edges toothed

    43. Basswood • Tilia americana L. • AKA: American linden

    44. White Birch • Betula papyrifera Marsh. • AKA: Paper birch, canoe birch

    45. Leaves alternate, simple, edges smooth

    46. Bud arrangement

    47. Winter Tree ID Key • Take a few minutes to go over your handout. • Highlight the important aspects, in order to help you differentiate types of trees. • Feel free to add notes. Sometimes coding helps the memory.

    48. Activity – Name that tree • As a group, your objective will be to use your handout in order to name the type of tree displayed on each slide. READY?

    49. 1) Name that tree…

    50. 2) Name that tree…