Tree Identification. By: Emmanuel County Institute. Longleaf Pine. Longleaf Pine. Longleaf pine----Pinaceae Pinus palustris Leaf: Evergreen, very long and feathery (8 to 18 inches long), with three dark green needles per fascicle.
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By: Emmanuel County Institute
Leaf: Evergreen, 7 to 10 inches long, flexible, with three (sometimes two) needles per fascicle, dark green in color. The fascicle sheath is quite long and persistent.
Flower: Monoecious, males cylindrical, red to yellow, in clusters at ends of twigs; females red to green, stalked oval.
Twig: Quite stout, orange-brown in color.
Fruit: Cones are 3 to 6 inches long, ovoid, borne on a stalk. Cones are caramel in color. The umbo is armed with a small, out curved spine. Maturing--October to November.
Bark: Red-brown and furrowed when young, becoming very platy. The surfaces of the plates are covered with thin, loose scales.
Form: A medium-sized tree with a narrow-ovoid crown. Needles appear to be tufted at the ends of the branches.Slash Pine
Leaf: Alternate, simple, 5 to 9 inches long and roughly obovate in outline. Two forms are common- 3 lobes with shallow sinuses or 5 to 7 lobes with deeper sinuses. Lobes are bristle-tipped. Tomentum is present below and on the petiole. Often resembles a turkey foot.
Flower: Staminate flowers borne on catkins. Pistillate flowers borne on spikes. Appears with the leaves.
Form: A medium-sized tree with a short trunk and large branches supporting a rounded crown.
Fruit: Acorns are 1/2 inch long, orange-brown and pubescent. The cap covers less than 1/3 of the nut and is quite thin and flattened. Matures after two years, ripens in September or October.
Twig: Reddish-brown in color, may be gray-pubescent or glabrous. Multiple terminal buds are dark red, pubescent, pointed and only 1/8 to 1/4 inch long.
Bark: Dark in color, thick, with broad, scaly ridges separated by deep, narrow furrows. Resembles Q. velutina, but the inner bark is only slightly yellow.Southern Red Oak
Fagaceae Quercus marilandica
Fagaceae Quercus virginiana
Leaf: Alternate, simple, evergreen, leathery, 2 to 5 inches long, oblong or elliptical in shape with an entire or spiny and revolute margin. The upper surface is lustrous, the lower is pale and pubescent . Generally, not bristle-tipped.
Flower: Staminate flowers borne on catkins. Pistillate flowers borne on spikes.
Appearing March through May.
Fruit: Acorns are in clusters of 3 to 5, maturing in one season. The nut is dark in color, 3/4 inch long and covered 1/3 by the cap. The cap is bowl-shaped and
warty, termed "turbinate" by Harlow et al. Maturing in September of the first year.
Twig: Slender, gray and pubescent, with small, blunt, multiple terminal buds.
Bark: Rapidly developing red-brown furrows with small surface scales. Later,
becoming black and very blocky.
Form: A medium-sized tree that can grow to massive proportions. Open grown
trees develop a huge rounded crown. The largest trees may be 150 feet across.
Leaf: Alternate, simple, 6 to 10 inches long, roughly oblong in shape with a highly
variable margin that has 5 to 9 lobes with irregular sinuses. The underside is white
Flower: Male flowers are green, borne in naked catkins, 2 to 4 inches long.
Female flowers are reddish and appear as single spikes. Appearing with the
Fruit: Acorns are 1/2 to 1 inch long, round and almost entirely covered by the cap.
The cap is warty and unfringed. Maturing in 1 year, ripening in September or
Twig: Slender and gray, glabrous - very closely resembling white oak. Buds are
small, ovoid and light chestnut brown in color. End buds are multiple.
Bark: Gray-brown and scaly, often with irregular plates, again resembling white
Form: A medium-sized tree with generally poor, twisted form. However, the
crown is pyramidal/oval and later rounded.
Taxodiaceae Taxodium ascendens
Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately veined, 3 to 6 inches long, triangular (deltoid) in
shape with a crenate/serrate margin. The petiole is flattened and glands are present
at the top of the petiole.
Flower: Dioecious, male and female as pendulous catkins, appearing before the
Fruit: Cottony seeds, 1/4 inch long borne in a dehiscent capsule. Maturing over
Twig: Stout, somewhat angled and yellowish. Buds are 3/4 inch long, covered with
several brown, resinous scales. Has a bitter aspirin taste.
Bark: Smooth, gray to yellow-green when young. Later turning gray with thick
ridges and deep furrows.
Form: A large tree with a clear bole and an open spreading crown resulting in a
somewhat vase-shaped form.
Taxodiaceae Taxodium ascendens
Leaf: Short, awl-like needles held close to the twig, green to yellow green.
Flower: Males in long (3 to 5 inches) hanging panicles, female's small and occur
near branch tips.
Fruit: Nearly round cone with peltate scales, ¾ to 1 inch in diameter, initially
yellow green but turning brown when mature, Breaks up into individual scales.
Twig: Slender covered with tight scale like foliage, later brown as needles age and
fall off, typical twigs ascending vertically from branches.
Bark: Fibrous and shreddy, red brown and gray where oxidized, thought to
become thicker than that of bald cypress.
Form: Medium sized tree with a pyramidal crown, clear bole and often buttressed
base, generally smaller than bald cypress.
Cupressaceae Juniperus virginiana
Leaf: Evergreen, with two types of leaves, often on the same tree. Scale leaves
1/16 inch long, dark green, with 4 sides. Awl leaves are more common on young
trees, 1/8 to 3/8 inch long, dark blue-green and sharp-pointed.
Flower: Males are dioecious, but occasionally monoecious, yellow-brown,
occurring in large groups. Females are light blue-green.
Fruit: Berry-like cones, light green in spring, turning dark blue and glaucous at
maturity, about 1/4 inch in diameter. Appearing March to May. Maturing
September to November.
Twig: Green for several years, covered in scales, later turning brown.
Bark: Red-brown in color, exfoliating in long, fibrous strips, often ashy gray where
Form: A small tree with a dense pyramidal or columner crown.
Betulaceae Betula nigra
Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately-veined, rhombic to ovate, 1 1/2 to 3 inches long,
obviously doubly serrate, with a wedge-shaped base.
Flower: Preformed aments, male near the end of the twig, 2 to 3 inches long.
Female catkins upright, 1/4 to 1/2 inch long. Flowering in early spring.
Fruit: Cone like, 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, with many hairy scales, containing tiny,
Twig: Slender, orangish-brown in color, smooth or slightly pubescent, with the
terminal bud absent. Lateral buds may be slightly pubescent. No wintergreen odor
Bark: Smooth on young trees, salmon to rust colored. On older trees, developing
papery scales, exfoliating horizontally with several colors (creamy to
orangish-brown) visible. Later developing coarse scales.
Form: River birch is a medium-size tree with poor form. The trunk generally divides low into several arching branches.
Ericaceae Oxydendrum arboreum
Leaf: Alternate, simple, elliptical to lanceolate, very finely serrate, 4 to 7 inches
long with very slight pubescence on the mid-vein below. A sour taste is obvious
when the leaf is chewed.
Flower: White, 1/4 inch long, borne on drooping panicles, reminiscent of
lily-of-the-valley flowers. Present late June to August.
Fruit: Born on panicles, enclosed in dehiscent, 5-valved capsules. Capsules are dry
when mature (September to October) and release the tiny, 2-winged seeds.
Twig: Olive green, changing to red, with buds that are small and oppressed. Leaf
scars are elevated with one bundle scar.
Bark: Grayish brown, very thick with deep furrows and scaly ridges. Often the
ridges are broken into recognizable rectangles.
Form: A small tree, usually with poor form and an irregular crown.