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Tree Identification. By: Emmanuel County Institute. Longleaf Pine. Longleaf Pine. Longleaf pine----Pinaceae Pinus palustris Leaf: Evergreen, very long and feathery (8 to 18 inches long), with three dark green needles per fascicle.

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tree identification

Tree Identification

By: Emmanuel County Institute

longleaf pine3
Longleaf Pine
  • Longleaf pine----Pinaceae Pinus palustris
  • Leaf: Evergreen, very long and feathery (8 to 18 inches long), with three dark green needles per fascicle.
  • Flower: Monoecious, males yellow-red, long, in clusters; females oval, purple.
  • Fruit: Very large (largest cone in the Eastern U. S. --6 to 10 inches long), ovoid to conical in shape, sessile. Scales are red-brown in color. The umbo is armed with a curved prickle. Maturing September to October.
  • Twig: Very stout, brown, with large obvious, asbestos-white buds.
  • Bark: Quite scaly, orange-brown to gray, will eventually develop plates.
  • Form: A medium-sized tree with a straight trunk, coarse branches and tufted needles at ends of branches.
shortleaf pine5
Shortleaf Pine
  • Shortleaf pine --Pinaceae Pinus echinata
  • Leaf: Evergreen, 3 to 5 inches long, two or three (on the same branch) slender and flexible needles per fascicle, dark yellow-green in color. The fascicle sheath is persistent.
  • Flower: Monoecious, males cylindrical, red to yellow, in clumps at ends of twigs; females light green to red, with a large spine.
  • Fruit: Compact, 2 inches long, ovoid, somewhat persistent. Cones are red to brown in color. The umbo is armed with a small prickle. Maturing October to November.
  • Twig: Green and purple when young, later turning red-brown.
  • Bark: Scaly and dark on young trees, eventually developing plates with scaly surfaces."Volcanoes" or small surface pockets of pitch may be apparent.
  • Form: A medium to large tree with a small, open, pyramidal crown.
slash pine7
Slash pine---Pinaceae Pinus elliottii

Leaf: Evergreen, 7 to 10 inches long, flexible, with three (sometimes two) needles per fascicle, dark green in color. The fascicle sheath is quite long and persistent.

Flower: Monoecious, males cylindrical, red to yellow, in clusters at ends of twigs; females red to green, stalked oval.

Twig: Quite stout, orange-brown in color.

Fruit: Cones are 3 to 6 inches long, ovoid, borne on a stalk. Cones are caramel in color. The umbo is armed with a small, out curved spine. Maturing--October to November.

Bark: Red-brown and furrowed when young, becoming very platy. The surfaces of the plates are covered with thin, loose scales.

Form: A medium-sized tree with a narrow-ovoid crown. Needles appear to be tufted at the ends of the branches.

Slash Pine
southern red oak9
Southern red oak--Fagaceae Quercus falcata

Leaf: Alternate, simple, 5 to 9 inches long and roughly obovate in outline. Two forms are common- 3 lobes with shallow sinuses or 5 to 7 lobes with deeper sinuses. Lobes are bristle-tipped. Tomentum is present below and on the petiole. Often resembles a turkey foot.

Flower: Staminate flowers borne on catkins. Pistillate flowers borne on spikes. Appears with the leaves.

Form: A medium-sized tree with a short trunk and large branches supporting a rounded crown.

Fruit: Acorns are 1/2 inch long, orange-brown and pubescent. The cap covers less than 1/3 of the nut and is quite thin and flattened. Matures after two years, ripens in September or October.

Twig: Reddish-brown in color, may be gray-pubescent or glabrous. Multiple terminal buds are dark red, pubescent, pointed and only 1/8 to 1/4 inch long.

Bark: Dark in color, thick, with broad, scaly ridges separated by deep, narrow furrows. Resembles Q. velutina, but the inner bark is only slightly yellow.

Southern Red Oak
blackjack oak
Blackjack Oak

Fagaceae Quercus marilandica

blackjack oak11
Blackjack Oak
  • Leaf: Alternate, simple, 5 to 8 inches long, thickened, with 3 shallow, bristle-tipped lobes near the end of the leaf, upper surface lustrous green, lower surface paler with orange-brown pubescence.
  • Flower: Monoecious, males 2 to 4 inch long hanging catkin, females small, single or paired.
  • Fruit: Acorn, nut 3/4 inch long often striated, light brown, cap covers about half of the nut and is covered with loose, hairy scales.
  • Twig: Stout, dark brown and scruffy-hairy, reddish-brown buds are 1/4 inch long, sharp, angled and fuzzy.
  • Bark: Very dark (almost black), rough, with blocky plates and splits.
  • Form: A small sized tree (20 to 30 feet tall) generally with poor form. It typically has a short trunk with a round crown made up of twisted limbs.
live oak
Live Oak

Fagaceae Quercus virginiana

live oak13
Live Oak

Leaf: Alternate, simple, evergreen, leathery, 2 to 5 inches long, oblong or elliptical in shape with an entire or spiny and revolute margin. The upper surface is lustrous, the lower is pale and pubescent . Generally, not bristle-tipped.

Flower: Staminate flowers borne on catkins. Pistillate flowers borne on spikes.

Appearing March through May.

Fruit: Acorns are in clusters of 3 to 5, maturing in one season. The nut is dark in color, 3/4 inch long and covered 1/3 by the cap. The cap is bowl-shaped and

warty, termed "turbinate" by Harlow et al. Maturing in September of the first year.

Twig: Slender, gray and pubescent, with small, blunt, multiple terminal buds.

Bark: Rapidly developing red-brown furrows with small surface scales. Later,

becoming black and very blocky.

Form: A medium-sized tree that can grow to massive proportions. Open grown

trees develop a huge rounded crown. The largest trees may be 150 feet across.

overcup oak
Overcup Oak

Leaf: Alternate, simple, 6 to 10 inches long, roughly oblong in shape with a highly

variable margin that has 5 to 9 lobes with irregular sinuses. The underside is white

and pubescent.

Flower: Male flowers are green, borne in naked catkins, 2 to 4 inches long.

Female flowers are reddish and appear as single spikes. Appearing with the

leaves.

Fruit: Acorns are 1/2 to 1 inch long, round and almost entirely covered by the cap.

The cap is warty and unfringed. Maturing in 1 year, ripening in September or

October.

Twig: Slender and gray, glabrous - very closely resembling white oak. Buds are

small, ovoid and light chestnut brown in color. End buds are multiple.

Bark: Gray-brown and scaly, often with irregular plates, again resembling white

oak.

Form: A medium-sized tree with generally poor, twisted form. However, the

crown is pyramidal/oval and later rounded.

cottonwood
Cottonwood

Taxodiaceae Taxodium ascendens

cottonwood17
Cottonwood

Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately veined, 3 to 6 inches long, triangular (deltoid) in

shape with a crenate/serrate margin. The petiole is flattened and glands are present

at the top of the petiole.

Flower: Dioecious, male and female as pendulous catkins, appearing before the

leaves.

Fruit: Cottony seeds, 1/4 inch long borne in a dehiscent capsule. Maturing over

summer.

Twig: Stout, somewhat angled and yellowish. Buds are 3/4 inch long, covered with

several brown, resinous scales. Has a bitter aspirin taste.

Bark: Smooth, gray to yellow-green when young. Later turning gray with thick

ridges and deep furrows.

Form: A large tree with a clear bole and an open spreading crown resulting in a

somewhat vase-shaped form.

pond cypress
Pond Cypress

Taxodiaceae Taxodium ascendens

pond cypress19
Pond Cypress

Leaf: Short, awl-like needles held close to the twig, green to yellow green.

Flower: Males in long (3 to 5 inches) hanging panicles, female's small and occur

near branch tips.

Fruit: Nearly round cone with peltate scales, ¾ to 1 inch in diameter, initially

yellow green but turning brown when mature, Breaks up into individual scales.

Twig: Slender covered with tight scale like foliage, later brown as needles age and

fall off, typical twigs ascending vertically from branches.

Bark: Fibrous and shreddy, red brown and gray where oxidized, thought to

become thicker than that of bald cypress.

Form: Medium sized tree with a pyramidal crown, clear bole and often buttressed

base, generally smaller than bald cypress.

red cedar
Red Cedar

Cupressaceae Juniperus virginiana

red cedar21
Red Cedar

Leaf: Evergreen, with two types of leaves, often on the same tree. Scale leaves

1/16 inch long, dark green, with 4 sides. Awl leaves are more common on young

trees, 1/8 to 3/8 inch long, dark blue-green and sharp-pointed.

Flower: Males are dioecious, but occasionally monoecious, yellow-brown,

occurring in large groups. Females are light blue-green.

Fruit: Berry-like cones, light green in spring, turning dark blue and glaucous at

maturity, about 1/4 inch in diameter. Appearing March to May. Maturing

September to November.

Twig: Green for several years, covered in scales, later turning brown.

Bark: Red-brown in color, exfoliating in long, fibrous strips, often ashy gray where

exposed.

Form: A small tree with a dense pyramidal or columner crown.

river birch
River Birch

Betulaceae Betula nigra

river birch23
River Birch

Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately-veined, rhombic to ovate, 1 1/2 to 3 inches long,

obviously doubly serrate, with a wedge-shaped base.

Flower: Preformed aments, male near the end of the twig, 2 to 3 inches long.

Female catkins upright, 1/4 to 1/2 inch long. Flowering in early spring.

Fruit: Cone like, 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, with many hairy scales, containing tiny,

3-winged seeds.

Twig: Slender, orangish-brown in color, smooth or slightly pubescent, with the

terminal bud absent. Lateral buds may be slightly pubescent. No wintergreen odor

when cut.

Bark: Smooth on young trees, salmon to rust colored. On older trees, developing

papery scales, exfoliating horizontally with several colors (creamy to

orangish-brown) visible. Later developing coarse scales.

Form: River birch is a medium-size tree with poor form. The trunk generally divides low into several arching branches.

sourwood
Sourwood

Ericaceae Oxydendrum arboreum

sourwood25
Sourwood

Leaf: Alternate, simple, elliptical to lanceolate, very finely serrate, 4 to 7 inches

long with very slight pubescence on the mid-vein below. A sour taste is obvious

when the leaf is chewed.

Flower: White, 1/4 inch long, borne on drooping panicles, reminiscent of

lily-of-the-valley flowers. Present late June to August.

Fruit: Born on panicles, enclosed in dehiscent, 5-valved capsules. Capsules are dry

when mature (September to October) and release the tiny, 2-winged seeds.

Twig: Olive green, changing to red, with buds that are small and oppressed. Leaf

scars are elevated with one bundle scar.

Bark: Grayish brown, very thick with deep furrows and scaly ridges. Often the

ridges are broken into recognizable rectangles.

Form: A small tree, usually with poor form and an irregular crown.